Relation between DNA, Genes, and Chromosomes

A picture of correlation between a gene, chomosome and DNA

In one of our previous articles, we have briefly explained the relationship between chromosome, chromatid, and chromatin as all these aspects are correlated with each other along with DNA.

DNA is a unique genetic material that fills up the genes. These genes rely on the core principle, which further proves whether living organisms look like their mother or father. Similarly, the chromosome is another genetic material responsible for carrying and passing the traits of both the parents to the new offspring.

Chromosomes are present within the nuclei of the living organisms and further pass the traits from both the parents making the offspring look unique and somewhat similar to their parents because the newborn individual must carry the trait of both the parents. 

What is DNA?

DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) is the primary genetic material that carries all the genetic information found in chromosomes, chloroplasts, and mitochondria. The building block components of DNA are base, sugar, and phosphate, which form nucleotide consisting of bases Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C), Thymine (T), and Uracil (U). 

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In contrast, other segments include nucleoside that comprises of sugar and a base. DNA is classified as a double helical structure molecule that comprises two polynucleotide chains laid antiparallel to each other wrapped around the same axis and further held together via the hydrogen bonds.

What are Genes?

The term gene was coined in 1980 by W. Johansen, and further, a detailed gene theory was proposed by T. H. Morgan in 1911, which briefly explained its origination and prominent importance in human lives. It is a specific genetic unit that carries the majority of information from both the parents and simultaneously controls an essential phenotype alongside contributing to the synthesis of the polypeptide chains. 

All chromosomes contain millions of genes within themselves arranged in a linear pattern on the chromosome or the relevant locus and resemble strings or bead-like structures. The characteristic trait of the genes depends on its position on the locus, and if its position changes, then there is a significant change in the character. 

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What are Chromosomes?

Talking about chromosomes which are identified as thread-like structures and are located within the nuclei of both the plant and animal cells. The genetic materials which make up the chromosomes are DNA and protein, and it is said that human beings comprise 46 chromosomes in total, which allows them to function properly. 

The particular set of chromosomes is specified for the living organisms, and extra addition or deletion of chromosomes leads to severe diseases within the individual.

How are these 3 Correlated to each other?

These three genetic materials are correlated to each other in multiple ways and together form the hereditary characteristics of the living organism. Starting from DNA is a crucial factor for living organisms. It is implemented with chromosome, genes, chromatid and chromatin, and several other genetic organelles required for the proper functioning, growth, and development of the individual. 

The relationship between these three is evident as DNA includes chromosomes that pass the traits of both the parents to the offspring and genes are located within the pairs of chromosomes, which altogether sum up for the livelihood of the living organisms.

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Conclusion

Genetic components have always been the savior for organisms. They are beneficial for solving most civil and criminal cases as from the relevant DNA of the living or deceased. Forensic experts can easily find out who is the birth parent and whether they are related to each other or not.

In conclusion, DNA is the most essential tool for the medical world, and that is used for generating new vaccines, medicines and curing significant diseases and is also a second home for simplifying the functions of genes and chromosomes.

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