Paint is a liquefiable mixture of organic and inorganic constituents such as pigments, resins, solvents, additives, and fillers, and converts into a solid film after being used on a substrate and forms a solid and good finish protective layer. There are different types of paint available. In the upcoming sections, we will learn about the different types of paints and their composition.’

Paints are usually used to protect the surface from pests, ultraviolet rays from the sun, rain, etc. It helps to keep the objects safe and clean. Paints increase the surface’s visual appeal, make it waterproof, and increase durability. Before you select any paint for a particular application, consider the physical properties. 

Along with the study of paints and their composition, we will also give a brief description of the uses of the paint types. Let’s begin!

Majorly Used Types of Paint

  1. Oil PaintsOil paints are used in three layers: primer, undercoat, & finish coat with a base of white lead. The affordable and durable oil paint finish is glossy and matte. The factors that make them good are easy application and easy cleaning. They are generally applied on walls, windows, metal, and doors. It is unsuitable in humidity and takes more time to dry. Before using oil paints, don’t forget to add pigments and linseed oil.
  2. Enamel Paints: Zinc or lead is added to varnish. The addition of pigments occurs to add colors. They are easy to clean, with the formation of glossy and hard coating. These are chemical resistant, waterproof, retains color for a long time, and offer good coverage. Enamel paints are applied on exterior & interior walls, doors, wood trims, flooring, stairs, windows, etc.
  3. Emulsion Paints: The binding materials of such paints use polystyrene and polyvinyl acetate. It contains manganese and cobalt as driers. It can be either oil-based or water-based paint along with some pigments to get the desired color. They dry fast and get hardened and easily cleaned with water. It is durable, resistant to alkalis, and retains good color. Emulsion paints are applied on ceilings, interior walls, and masonry work.
  4. Cement Paints: These are available in powder forms that are mixed with a solvent like water to get the consistency of the paint. The material of the base is either colored or white cement. It might contain some pigments, additives, and accelerators. They are waterproof and durable. It is applied on rough external and internal surfaces. It takes 24 hours to dry and be applied in two layers to prevent issues of dampness. 

Composition of Paints

Paints usually contain some common substances that are mentioned below:

  1. PigmentsFinely grounded inorganic and organic insoluble and dispersible particles that provide essential properties such as color, opacity, durability, hardness, and resistance to corrosion of paints. They are different from dyes because they are not intended to dissolve in the host matrix system. Even after adding into the matrix, they still maintain their properties as they are inert.
  2. BindersThe polymeric portion of the paint forms the paint coat film for properties like alkali, solvent, and acid resistance or others that impair the final finish of the surface. The primary purpose is to adjust the viscosity of the paint to allow the paint to spread conveniently over the surface. It is volatile and does not become a part of the film. It also brings hardness, flexibility, adhesion, glossy impact, and resistance to abrasion properties. Once it turns solid, it can’t be converted into liquid again. This is the carrier for volatile components.
  3. SolventThis helps in film coating, maintains flow and viscosity, and controls the evaporation rate. The main function is to dissolve and adjust the paint’s viscosity. It is volatile and does not become a part of the film. Solvents can affect the stability of the paints while being in a liquid state. It is a carrier for non-volatile components.
  4. Additives and ModifiersThese substances are added in small quantities to improve the properties of the paint. It includes driers, corrosion inhibitors, catalysts, UV absorbers, and plasticizers.     

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