Industrial Revolution, Research and Developments in the field of Science and Technology, globalization and liberalization of the economies, and internationalization of trade and marketing are aimed at the progress and prosperity of human society but the same has also become sources of organized crimes at national and international levels.
Most of the time these crimes are committed by those who are at the helm of affairs. Information Technology has opened new vistas for the commission of organized crimes throughout the world. It has paved the way for innovating new techniques and equipment for the commission of cybercrimes in various ways, by jumping out of the purview of law and territorial limits but under the grab of law.
Organized crimes are not new. They are in existence for times immemorial in almost every society. These crimes are generally committed by criminals with common purposes like luxurious living and power shows. Social rivalry, exploitation and torture, etc of innocent and law-abiding citizens are also some of the factors which make the victims form into groups and organize themselves for the commission of crimes, sometimes in vengeance or social protection.
What is Organised crime?
In general connotation, organized crime is an act committed by two or more persons jointly in a systematic pre-planned, and organized manner. It is a category of a transnational, national, or local grouping of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals who intend to engage in illegal activity most commonly for monetary profit.
Criminologist Donald Taft said that factors like leadership, group discipline, loyalty, division of labor, fellow membership sacrifice, cooperation, and group planning were adopted for increasing efficiency of labor and achieving higher productivity used in organizing the crimes.
Most of the criminals organize themselves into groups to specialize themselves in their traits and accept a particular crime as an occupation.
Categories of Organized Crimes
Some important types of Organised crimes are as follows-
1. Predatory Crimes
Predatory crimes are those which did not provide any relief to the affected person. It is a one-way transaction where the members of the gang commit crimes and enjoy themselves the fruits cropped up out of such crimes without any service to the victims.
These criminals have no repentance even though they are well conscious of the consequences of their criminal acts. Examples of predatory crimes include theft, dacoity, extortion kidnapping, pickpocketing, and terrorism.
2. Crime Syndicates
Crime Syndicates are those gangs of criminals engaged in the business of providing forbidden or illegal service to their customers who are ready and willing to pay handsome money for such service. These types of crimes also provide protection and shelter by employing law-abiding persons to those who carry on criminal activities.
Crime syndicates comprise of highly spirited and professional gang leaders. Offenders indulge in crimes like gambling, bootlegging, prostitution, and supply narcotic drugs.
3. Criminal Rackets
In Criminal rackets organized crime, criminal elements perform a service to such members of society who are normally engaged in some legitimate business activities. The criminal world racketeering is systematic extortion under threat in the nature of the personal injury or property deprivation. Examples of such crimes include individual business organizations, labor unions, etc.
The following are some of the types of criminal rackets-
- Business Labour Rackets– Such crime emerge where the employers who try to make huge profits and labour want high wages.
- Gambling Rackets– Gambling rackets operate their modus operandi based on the tendency of people who take chance and try their luck for gaining something out of nothing. An example includes horse race, illegal betting, illegal lotteries etc.
4. Political Grafts
Political grafts mean corruption amongst members of political parties or persons who are in political power. Persons of high status having a legitimate business will make communication with professional criminals through political grafts.
Generally, politicians require the support of gangsters and notorious offenders for acquiring and retaining political power and victory of their parties in elections.
5. Collective Violence
Collective violence is a form of organized crime applied by organized criminal groups to encourage and assist in spreading violent conflicts between nations and groups leading to disastrous consequences in the form of loss of lives, material and national wealth. Examples include terrorists, gang warfare, mass hooliganism, etc.
Characteristics Features of Organised Crimes
- Accused is be a member of gang or syndicate.
- Groups of people continuously engage in crime over a long time.
- They have wider connections at national and international levels.
- Organisation is centralized.
- There is a sense of unity and solidarity towards the criminals.
Organized criminals have their own leaders with high profiles. Members of the gang work in perfect harmony and understanding. They have their own code of ethics, vision, and perfect division of labor.
Few members of the syndicate act as watchdogs and keep their fellow criminals alert of dangers from police or other detective agencies. The leader helps in supervising the smooth working of the syndicate and control the participants perfectly. There are several inter-state gangs carrying on organized crimes as a regular business.