Difference Between Forensic Toxicology and Forensic Chemistry

Difference Between Forensic Toxicology & Forensic Chemistry by Forensic Yard

Forensic science is the application of all sciences to the law of Justice. Forensic scientists collect, preserve, and analyze scientific evidence during the investigation of any crime. Forensic scientists visit the crime scene to collect the evidence themselves and occupy a laboratory role by analyzing objects brought to them by other officers.

Forensic Toxicology and Forensic Chemistry though deals with chemicals are different from each other. It is the application of methods of natural and physical sciences to criminal and civil law.

Forensic Science is involved in the investigation and prosecution of crimes such as rape, murder, drug trafficking, and helps to investigate a criminal case to convict the accused or discharge an innocent of all charges.

Toxicology v/s Chemistry

It is a field of science that helps us understand the harmful effects of chemicals, substances, or situations on humans, animals, and the environment. Toxicology refers to the “Science of Safety” because it has evolved from science that focuses on studying poisons and adverse effects of chemical exposures and safety.

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Toxicology uses the power of science to predict what, which, and the mode of action that is how chemicals may cause harm and spread the information about those chemicals to protect public health.

Chemistry deals with the properties, composition, and structure of substances, elements, compounds, and the transformations they undergo, including the energy that is released or absorbed during these processes. Chemistry is concerned with the properties of atoms and the laws governing their combinations, and how the knowledge and information about these properties can be used to achieve specific purposes.

Forensic Toxicology and Forensic Chemistry 

Forensic Toxicology 

Forensic toxicology is the branch of science that applies the principles and knowledge of toxicology to issues and problems for investigation in a legal setting.

Techniques of analytical chemistry (deals with the techniques and methods for determining the identity and relative amounts of unknown components) are combined with principles of toxicology to analyze the issues related to the toxic effects of substances on humans for judicial proceedings.

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Toxicology is the field that deals with the study of poisons. The amount of dose differentiates a poison from a remedy. Forensic toxicology is divided into three major subdivisions: postmortem toxicology, forensic drug testing, and human performance toxicology.

The primary responsibility of forensic toxicologists remains in helping the judicial system decide whether a particular substance could have a clinical or toxicological impact on the outcome of a legal matter. 

Forensic Chemistry 

It is the application of chemistry and its subfield, such as forensic toxicology in Criminal and Civil law. A forensic chemist can help identify unknown materials found at a crime scene, and they have methods and instruments to help identify unknown substances.

Forensic Chemistry can be described as applying knowledge in the field of chemistry to solve crimes.

Some of the techniques used to solve the uncertainties of the crime scene, such as Spectroscopy techniques used to check the purity of materials and identification and separation techniques are used to detect illegal drugs and narcotics.

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Difference Between Forensic Toxicology and Forensic Chemistry

Forensic Toxicology Forensic Chemistry 
It studies where the drugs affect the body and how this occurs. It studies to identify the quantity, evaluate and analyze the unknown items present in the laboratories and crime scene. 
It is the application of toxicology in a legal setting. It is the application of chemistry in a legal setting. 
It focuses on human fluids, stomach, skin, etc for As or other poisonous items. It focuses on identifying unusual compounds or substances such as paints, gasoline, kerosene, etc. 
It needs to determine the presence or absence of drugs, alcohol, etc. It needs to determine the controlled substances such as marijuana or cocaine and the source of a particular batch of drugs. 
Techniques: UV Spectroscopy, X-ray spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, and gas & column chromatography.Techniques: gas and liquid chromatography, spectrophotometry, mass spectrometry, and antibody-based immunoassays.
Forensic Toxicology relates to the identification of the chemical found in the biological fluid from the body or breath and applied to the court of law. Forensic Chemistry relates to the identification of evidence of chemical substance and results applied to the court of law. 
It concentrates on venoms, poisons, anything that is killed or harmed that is in the victim’s body. It concentrates on chemicals usually outside the victim’s body such as petrol, detergents, etc. 
It deals with the effects of toxins or poisons when a crime or poisoning has been committed. It deals with the synthesis and experimentation of chemicals and drugs. 
Toxicologists determine how to prevent chemical compounds from poisoning.Chemists determine the developing or manufacturing process of drugs for disease treatment. 

Conclusion

There is a huge difference between Forensic Toxicology and Forensic Chemistry. Forensic Chemistry where deals with testing of Chemicals and drugs. Forensic Toxicology deals with poisons in criminal cases.

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