Poisoning is the condition that occurs by the ingestion, inhalation, or injecting any drugs or poisonous substances or when the body comes in contact with any poisonous substances.

Its symptoms commonly include Diarrhea, Vomit, Nausea, etc. Different substances has different efficiency, mortality rate, and effects on body.

Types of Poisoning

Poisoning have been classified into two types:

  • Based on effect 
  • Based on the way or process 

Types of Poisoning on the basis of effect

  1. Acute Poisoning 
  2. Chronic Poisoning 
  3. Sub-acute Poisoning 
  4. Fulminant Poisoning


Acute Poisoning is produced by the adverse effects of a substance that occurs either from a single exposure or from multiple exposures in a short period. It usually takes less than 24 hours.

In this Poisoning, the adverse effects on the body occur within 14 days of the administration of the substance. So, in acute Poisoning, the period is short, and the dosage is high.

Symptoms are pain, dizziness, swelling, increase heart rate, etc. 


Chronic Poisoning is long-term exposure to a poison. It can be repeated or continuous exposure to a poison where symptoms do not produce immediately or after each exposure. Instead, the person gradually becomes ill and produces signs and symptoms after a long period.

Chronic Poisoning, the development of adverse effects on a body due to long-term exposure to any poisonous substances or poison. So, in this Poisoning, the time is long, and the dosage is low.

Symptoms are kidney damage, brain damage, arsenic poisoning, cancer, etc. 


Subacute Poisoning describes the adverse effects occurring as a result of a single dose or multiple doses of a test sample per day given during a period of from 14 to 28 days. It is a repeat dose of poison.

So, in this Poisoning, the number of doses is higher or greater, and the time is also longer. It is a type of Poisoning which lies between acute Poisoning and chronic Poisoning.

Examples of these poisonings are Organo-phosphate poisoning, Carbon monoxide poisoning, etc. 


Fulminant means come suddenly with great severity. It is the type of Poisoning that occurs due to immense exposure to poisonous substances or poison.

Sometimes the adverse effects produce such as death without any signs and symptoms. It is a sudden reaction without being exposed for a more extended period.

Types of Poisoning based on the process or way

  1. Suicidal 
  2. Accidental 
  3. Homicidal 
  4. Abuse 


Suicidal Poisoning is also known as Self-Poisoning. Suicidal Poisoning is the most common means used by individuals to attempt suicide and is the common method among females.

A large portion of suicides and suicide attempts involves Poisoning, and most poisonings includes prescription medication. It is intentional self-harm by using poisons. 


Childhood poisoning comes under accidental poisonings. It is an unintentional act. It is a type of Poisoning that mainly happens in children under the age of 5.

Accidental Poisoning includes a person unintentionally poisoning themselves, which also involves an accidental drug overdose. Sometimes these poisonings can result in acute Poisoning, which causes vomiting and diarrhea.

Exposure to any poisonous substances or poison at the occupational site and which cause Poisoning is included in accidental Poisoning.


Homicidal Poisoning describes the murder of human beings by poison. Examples of the poisons used in homicide are mainly arsenic, organophosphates, aluminum phosphide, and paraquat.

The percentage of homicidal poisoning cases is found to be 0.3%–3.7%. In this Poisoning, all the age-group and both the sexes are included. 


The abuse included Poisoning as an additional offense and was reported as the intentional act of an overdose of a drug or the exposure of a toxic substance. Child abuse by Poisoning is an example of Abuse poisoning, which includes the intentional over usage of a drug.

Substances used for abuse poisoning include alcohol, nicotine, opioids, cannabinoids, sedatives, volatile solvents, hallucinogens, and stimulants. It is reported that most cases of intentional and accidental Poisoning are due to drugs of abuse.

Sometimes a person accidentally gets poisoned due to the overdose of the substance used for physical and mental illness or psychological calmness. 

Categories: Toxicology


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