Forensic Biology
Difference Between Chromosome, Chromatin and Chromatid

Difference Between Chromosome, Chromatin and Chromatid

All living organisms are composed of genetic materials which contribute to the growth and development of the body. Starting from DNA, which is the most important part of genetics and serves a crucial role during cell division in the living organisms and helps in genetic identification within the living organisms.

It’s a double helical structure composed of dual long and thin threads that twirl up around each other and look Simi to the spiral staircases. These thread-like structures are called chromosomes which are found both in eukaryotic and prokaryoticcells. 

What is Chromosome?

Chromosomes consist of thread-like structures that tightly bind the DNA located within the nucleus of the cell. These genetic materials assure that there is synchronized replication and dispersion of DNA during cell division. Humans have 46 chromosomes which are divided into two different pairs. One pair consists of 23 chromosomes, and both sets are inherited equally from both the parents so that the offspring receives significant characteristics from both of them. A single chromosome is divided into two different sections, which consists of two short and two long arms holders together by a centromere in the centre.

What Is Chromatin?

Chromatin is asserted as a genetic material of chromosomes that comprises both DNA and protein and is found during the interphase stage of the mitosis cycle. It’s located within the nucleus of the eukaryotic cells and contains a complex bunch of macromolecules ( DNA, RNA and Protein ) responsible for completing the individual’s genetic factors.

Types of Chromatin

It exists in two different forms, i.e., euchromatin and heterochromatin, where the former one seems to be less condensed and can be transcribed seamlessly, whereas the latter one is highly concentrated and cannot move ahead with the transcription procedure within the chromosomes.

What is Chromatid?

Chromatid is a single copy of the chromosome found after the sequence of DNA replication. A Single chromosome comprises two chromatids that join together at the centromere. The two chromosomes which are responsible for making up a single chromosome are referred to as sister chromatids. However,  two chromatids found in the homologous chromosomes are denoted as non-sister chromatids.

Types of Chromatids

We have already discussed that there are two types of chromatids, i.e., sister and non-sister chromatids. When two chromatids of the same chromosome are joined together with a common centromere, then it’s denoted as sister chromatids. In the case of non-sister chromatids, pairing is done between each chromosome obtained from maternal and paternal chromosomes.

Major Difference Explained Between Chromosome ,Chromatin, and Chromatid In Tabular Form

Chromosomes don’t exhibit any kind of metabolic activity.Chromatin is responsible for managing three major processes which are known as DNA replication, gene expression and recombination.Contribute towards the metabolic activities which are required for proper functioning of the cells.
Chromosomes are found during the interphase stage of the cell division.Chromatins are found during the metaphase stage of the cell division and also prevails during the nuclear division of the anaphase stage.Chromatids exist during the interphase stage.
Chromosomes are thin, ribbon-shaped uncoiled structures.Chromatins are thick, ribbon-shaped structures.These are thin and long fibrous structures.
Chromosomes are single thread-like structures and compose of unpaired fibres.Chromatin always exists in pairs.Single chromosome consists of two chromatids.
This basic genetic material comprises nucleosomes.They are combined within the layer of chromatin fibres.Two different DNA strands are joined together with their respective centromeres.

Final Words

These three genetic materials are correlated with each other, and we all would ultimately agree to this point that they’re incomplete without each other. In conclusion, the genetic characteristics that we obtain from both the parents are obtained when chromosomes, chromatids, and chromatin work together within the cell’s nucleus.

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