Crime is an unlawful act which violates the laws made by the government or a community and is punishable. A crime is defined as an offence which causes any harm to a particular person or society or country. The authority defining laws related to crimes also defines certain punishments for particular crimes. Here, we have described some of the common crimes in India and their statistics in the recent past in India.
Different Crimes in India
Crimes in India are available in different structures including illegal medication trading, arms trafficking, tax-evasion, blackmail, murder, human trafficking and poaching. Numerous criminal tasks take part in dark marketing, political savagery, strictly spurred viciousness, psychological oppression, and snatching and other crimes include manslaughter, theft, attack, property-related misdemeanours, robbery, burglary, engine vehicle burglary, and pyro-crime while defilement is a huge issue.
Crimes against Women
One of the common crimes in India includes violence or crimes committed against women. Police records show a high rate of violations against women in India. The National Crime Records Bureau in 1998 revealed that the development pace of violations against women would be higher than the populace development rate by 2010.
Earlier, numerous cases were not enlisted with the police because of the social shame appended to assault and attack cases. Official measurements show that there has been a sensational increment in the quantity of announced crime against women.
Sexual harassment is the most heinous crime committed against women and tops in the list of common crimes in India. It feels shameful to see harassment of women in society, offices, home, etc. in a country where females are considered a goddess and prayed.
Half of the complete number of violations against ladies detailed in 1990 identified with attack and badgering at the workplace. Eve teasing is doublespeak utilized for sexual harassment or attack on women by men.
Numerous activists accuse the rising episodes of lewd behaviour against women because of the “Western culture”. In 1987, The Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act was passed to deny revolting portrayal of women through promotions or in distributions, compositions, works of art, figures, or in some other way.
In 1997, in a milestone judgment, the Supreme Court of India took a solid remain against the lewd behaviour of women in the working environment. The Court additionally set down point by point rules for anticipation and redressal of complaints. The National Commission for women in this manner explained these rules into a Code of Conduct for employers.
While open pee isn’t rehearsed by women of any age in India, it is socially inadmissible for men to freely pee when bathrooms are inaccessible. In different nations, for example, Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam open pee are polished by ladies when there are no toilets. This prompts badgering and UTI in ladies.
Dowry is a tradition practised since ancient times and as the modernization came, this tradition has faded in some societies as the government of India made strict laws against Dowry crimes in India. It is still practised in some areas yet hasn’t completely vanished from society.
In 1961, the Government of India passed the Dowry Prohibition Act, setting the dowry expectations in wedding courses as illegal. Nonetheless, numerous instances of share related aggressive behaviour at home, suicides, and murders have been accounted for. During the 1980s, various such cases registered. Notwithstanding, late reports show that dowry has decreased drastically.
In 1985, the Dowry Prohibition rules were framed which marked as a rundown of presents given at the hour of the union with the lady of the hour and the husband ought to be kept up. The rundown ought to contain a concise portrayal of each present, its inexact worth, the name of whoever has given the present, and his/her relationship to the individual.
A 1997 report asserted that at any rate 5,000 ladies kick the bucket every year on account of settlement passings, and at any rate twelve bite the dust every day in ‘kitchen flames’ believed to be purposeful. The expression for this is “lady of the hour consuming” and is scrutinized inside India itself. Among the urban instructed, such settlement misuse has decreased drastically.
Child marriage has been generally predominant in India and proceeds right up ’till the present time. Historically, the little children would live with their folks till they arrived at adolescence. Before, the kid widows were sentenced to an existence of extraordinary anguish, shaving heads, living in seclusion, and evaded by the society. Although child marriage was prohibited in 1860, it is as yet a typical practice.
As indicated by UNICEF’s “Condition of the World’s Children-2009” report, 47% of India’s ladies matured 20-24 were hitched before the legitimate age of 18, with 56% in country areas. The report additionally demonstrated that 40% of the world’s kid relationships happen in India.
Female Infanticide and Abortions
Crimes in India against women doesn’t stop as suffering hasn’t stopped till now. Numerous incidents are recorded every day against a woman where Female infanticide and Abortions are also among them.
India has an exceptionally high male sex proportion, the central explanation being that numerous ladies kick the bucket before coming to adulthood. Tribal social orders in India have a less manly sex proportion than all other rank gatherings.
This, notwithstanding the way that inborn networks have far lower levels of salary, education, and wellbeing facilities. It is thus, recommended by numerous specialists, that the exceptionally manly sex proportion in India can be credited to female child murders and sex-particular premature births.
Every clinical test that can be utilized to decide the sex of the kid has been prohibited in India, because of the occurrences of these tests being utilized to dispose of the undesirable female child before birth.
Female child murder (slaughtering of a young girl child) is as yet common in some parts of the country. The maltreatment of the settlement convention has been one of the primary purposes behind sex-particular premature births and female child murders in India.
The occurrences of domestic brutality are higher among the lower Socio-Economic Classes (SECs). There are different examples of an intoxicated spouse thrashing the wife regularly prompting extreme wounds. Abusive behaviour at home is additionally found as physical maltreatment.
All these above violence by men also come under the list of crimes in India against women as the domestic violence still isn’t getting better. Therefore, the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005 came into power on October 26, 2006.
The Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act was passed in 1956. However numerous instances of dealing with little child and ladies have been accounted for. These ladies are either constrained into prostitution, household work, or child labour.
Illegal Drug Trade
Drugs are the common factor for the destruction of youth as it has a lot of negative impacts on the physical as well as mental health of the person. Therefore, trading of drugs has been listed among seriously growing crimes in India.
India is situated between two significant illegal opium delivering focused in Asia – the Golden Crescent including Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran, and the Golden Triangle containing Burma, Thailand, and Laos. Because of such geological area, India encounters enormous measures of medication dealing through the borders. India is the world’s biggest maker of licit opium.
But opium is redirected to unlawful global medication markets. India is a transhipment point for heroin from Southwest Asian nations like Afghanistan and Pakistan and from Southeast Asian nations like Burma, Laos, and Thailand. Heroin is snuck from Pakistan and Burma, with certain amounts transshipped through Nepal.
Most heroin sent from India is bound for Europe. There have been reports of heroin pirated from Mumbai to Nigeria for additional export. In Maharashtra, Mumbai is a significant place for the dispersion of drug. The most regularly utilized medication in Mumbai is Indian heroin (called desi mal by the nearby population).
Both open transportation (street and rail transportation) and private transportation are utilized for this medication trade.
Drug trafficking influences the nation from numerous points of view.
• Drug abuse: Cultivation of illegal opiate substances and medication dealing influences the soundness of the people and decimate the financial structure of the family and society.
• Organized crime: Drug dealing brings about the development of sorted out wrongdoing which influences government managed savings. Sorted out wrongdoing interfaces medicate dealing with debasement and cash laundering.
• Political precariousness: Drug dealing additionally irritate the political shakiness in North-West and North-East India.
A study led in 2003-2004 by Narcotics Control Bureau found that India has 4,000,000 medication addicts. The most widely recognized medications utilized in India are cannabis, hashish, opium, and heroin. In 2006 alone, India’s law implementing organizations recouped 230 kg heroin and 203 kg of cocaine.
In a yearly government report in 2007, the United States named India among 20 significant centre points for dealing with illicit medications alongside Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Burma. Nonetheless, it examines uncover that the greater part of the hoodlums trapped in this wrongdoing is either Nigerian or US nationals.
A few measures have been taken by the Government of India to battle illegal drug trade in the nation. India is a gathering of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs (1961), the Convention on Psychotropic Substances (1971), the Protocol Amending the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs (1972) and the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (1988).
An Indo-Pakistani panel was set up in 1986 to forestall dealing in opiate drugs. India marked a show with the United Arab Emirates in 1994 to control sedate trafficking. In 1995, India consented to an arrangement with Egypt for the examination of medication cases and trade of data and a Memorandum of Understanding of the Prevention of Illicit drug trafficking with Iran.
Arms trafficking is a serious issue as it creates violence and disturbs the peace of the society. Therefore, listed among one of the major crimes in India with severe punishment to the trader by the court of law.
As per a joint report distributed by Oxfam, Amnesty International and the International Action Network on Small Arms (IANSA) in 2006, there are around 40 million illicit little arms in India out of roughly 75 million in overall circulation. Majority of the unlawful little arms advance into the conditions of Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, Orissa, and Madhya Pradesh.
In India, a pre-owned AK-47 expenses $3,800 in the dark market. A large measure of illicit little arms are produced in different illicit arms industrial facilities in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar and sold on the bootleg market for as meagre as $5.08. Chinese guns are popular in the illicit little arms advertise in India since they are effectively accessible and cheaper.
This pattern represents a huge issue for the conditions of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh which have the impact of Naxalism. The permeable Indo-Nepal fringe is a section point for Chinese guns, AK-47 and M-16 rifles into India as these arms are utilized by the Naxalites who have connections to Maoists in Nepal.
In North-East India, there is a gigantic deluge of little arms because of the extremist gatherings working there. The little arms in North-East India originate from radical gatherings in Burma, the bootleg market in South-East Asian nations like Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Sri Lanka, the underground market in Cambodia, the People’s Republic of China, guerilla bunches like the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, the Communist Party of India (Maoist), the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist).
The little arms found in North-East India are M14 rifle, M16 rifle, AK-47, AK-56, AK-74, light automatic weapons, Chinese hand projectiles, mines, rocket-moved explosives, submachine weapons, etc.
The Ministry of External Affairs and Ministry of Home Affairs drafted a joint proposition to the UN, looking for a worldwide restriction on little arms deals to non-state users.
Poaching and Wildlife Trafficking
Illegal wildlife trading and poaching cases have increased in the past and have led to the extinction of many wild animals. For example- Rhinoceros. To stop these crimes in India, the government has taken some measures to control the killing of wild animals.
According to a report distributed by the Environmental Investigation Agency (EIA) in 2004, India is the main objective for the dealers of natural life skin. Between 1994 and 2003, there have been 784 situations where the skins of tiger, panther or otter have been seized.
Leopards, rhinoceros, reptiles, winged creatures, creepy crawlies, uncommon types of plants are being pirated into the nations in Southeast Asia and the People’s Republic of China. Between 1994 and 2003, poaching and seizure of 698 otters have been archived in India.
Kathmandu is a key organizing point for unlawful skins carried from India destined for Tibet and PRC. The report by EIA noted there has been an absence of cross-fringe collaboration between India, Nepal, and the People’s Republic of China to facilitate implementation activities and absence of political will to treat natural life crime effectively.
The poaching of the elephants is a huge issue in Southern India and in the North-Eastern conditions of Nagaland and Mizoram. Most of the tiger poaching occurs in Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, West Bengal, Assam, and Arunachal Pradesh.
The data of revealed instances of tiger and panther poaching from 1998 to 2003:
|Reported cases of tiger poaching||14||38||39||35||47||8|
|Reported cases of leopard poaching||28||80||201||69||87||15|
Samir Sinha, head of Traffic India, the untamed life exchange observing arm of the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and the World Conservation Union (IUCN), told Reuters in a meeting “The circumstance with respect to the unlawful exchange untamed life parts in India is extremely bleak. It is huge, a fluctuated exchange going from pirating of uncommon restorative plants to butterflies to peafowls to tigers and it is hard to foresee how huge it is, however, the dangers and measurements recommend that the exchange is increasing”.
Venture Tiger, a natural life preservation venture, was started in 1972 and was propelled by Indira Gandhi on April 1, 1973. With 23 tiger saves, Project Tiger professed to have succeeded.
But as indicated by pundits like moderate Billy Arjan Singh, transitory increments in tiger populace were brought about by migration because of pulverization of environment in Nepal, not in view of the broadly acclaimed accomplishment of untamed life strategy in India.
As India is moving online day-by-day, instances of cybercrime are increasing at a fast rate. Instances of spam, PC hacking, digital following, and email extortion are uncontrolled crimes in India.
The Information Technology Act 2000 was passed by the Parliament of India in May 2000, intending to check digital violations and give a lawful system to internet business transactions.
However, Pavan Duggal, legal counsellor of Supreme Court of India and digital law master, said “The IT Act, 2000, is principally intended to be an enactment to advance web-based business. It isn’t extremely successful in managing a few rising digital wrongdoings like digital provocation, slander, following thus on.”
Although cybercrime cells have been set up in significant urban areas, Duggal noticed the issue that most of the cases stay unreported because of an absence of awareness.
In 2001, India and the United States had set up an India-US digital security gathering as a major aspect of a counter-fear based oppression dialogue. In 2006, India and the US consented to improve collaboration between law implementation offices of the two nations in handling digital violations as a component of counter-psychological warfare efforts.
A joint US-India proclamation discharged in 2006 after talks between US President George W. Hedge and Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh focused on taking into account the significance of digital security and digital measurable exploration, the two nations are additionally doing conversations on a draft convention on digital security.
Corruption and Police misconduct
Corruption is among widespread crimes in India which is prevalent within every section and every level of society. Corruption has taken the role of a pervasive aspect of Indian politics.
In India, corruption takes the form of bribes, evasion of tax and exchange controls, embezzlement, etc. Despite state prohibitions against torture and custodial misconduct by the police, torture is widespread in police custody, which is a major reason behind deaths in custody.
The police often torture innocent people until a ‘confession’ is obtained to save influential and wealthy offenders. G.P. Joshi, the program coordinator of the Indian branch of the Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative in New Delhi comments that “the main issue at hand concerning police violence is a lack of accountability of the police”.
In 2006, the Supreme Court of India in a judgment in the Prakash Singh vs. Union of India case ordered central and state governments with seven directives to begin the process of police reform. The main objectives of this set of directives were two-fold, providing tenure to and streamlining the appointment/transfer processes of policemen, and increasing the accountability of the police.
In 2006, seven policemen were charge-sheeted and eleven were convicted for custodial misconduct.
A report published by the National Crime Records Bureau compared the crime rate from 1953 to 2006. The report noted that burglary declined over a period of 53 years by 38% (from 1,47,379 in 1953 to 91,666 in 2006), whereas murder has increased by 231% (from 9,803 in 1953 to 32,481 in 2006).
Kidnapping has increased by 356% (from 5,261 in 1953 to 23,991 in 2006), robbery by 120% (from 8,407 in 1953 to 18,456 in 2006) and riots by 176% (from 20,529 in 1953 to 56,641 in 2006).
In 2006, 51,02,460 cognizable crimes were committed including 18,78,293 Indian Penal Code (IPC) crimes and 32,24,167 Special & Local Laws (SLL) crimes, with an increase of 1.5% over 2005 (50,26,337).
IPC crime rate in 2006 was 167.7 compared to 165.3 in 2005 showing an increase of 1.5% in 2006 over 2005. SLL crime rate in 2006 was 287.9 compared to 290.5 in 2005 showing a decline of 0.9% in 2006 over 2005.
|Year||Total cog. crimes under IPC||Murder||Kidnapping||Robbery||Burglary||Riots|
|% Change in 2006 over 1953||212.0||231.0||356.0||120.0||-38.0||176.0|
SOURCE: National Crime Records Bureau.
Crimes in India by Locals
The location has a significant impact on crimes in India. In 2006, the highest crime rate was reported in Pondicherry (447.7%) for crimes under the Indian Penal Code which is 2.7 times the national crime rate of 167.7%. Kerala reported the highest crime rate at 312.5% among states.
Kolkata (71.0%) and Madurai (206.2%) were the only two megacities that reported less crime rate than their domain states West Bengal (79.0%) and Tamil Nadu (227.6%). Delhi, Mumbai, and Bangalore have accounted for 16.2%, 9.5%, and 8.1% respectively of the total IPC crimes reported from 35 megacities. Indore reported the highest crime rate (769.1%) among the megacities in India followed by Bhopal (719.5%) and Jaipur (597.1%).
J&K (33.7%), Manipur (33.0%), Assam (30.4%), and Daman and Diu and Pondicherry (29.4%) reported higher violent crime rate compared to 18.4% at the national level.
Uttar Pradesh reported the highest incidence of violent crimes accounting for 12.1% of total violent crimes in India (24,851 out of 2,05,656) followed by Bihar with 11.8% (24,271 out of 2,05,6556).
Among 35 megacities, Delhi reported 31.2% (533 out of 1,706) of total rape cases. Madhya Pradesh has reported the highest number of rape cases (2,900) accounting for 15.0% of total such cases reported in the country.
Uttar Pradesh reported 16.9% (5,480 out of 32,481) of total murder cases in the country and 18.4% (4,997 out of 27,230) total attempt to murder cases.
Crimes against Foreigners in India
There are several instances of violent crimes in India against foreigners. Scams involving the export of jewels occur in India, targets foreign citizens.
Political demonstrations are common in India and frequently turn violent. Transportation and services are often disrupted. Travelling alone in remote areas after dark is of particular risk to foreigners.
Because U.S. citizens purchasing power is relatively large compared to the general Indian population, they are also the preferred target for robbery and other serious crimes.
In April 1999, Swaraj Damree, a tourist from Mauritius was befriended by a group of Indians who later held him in 25 days of captivity. They robbed him of cash amounting to the US $1,500, took his traveller’s cheques, wristwatch, gold chain, bracelet, two bags, and suitcase.
In 2000, two German trekkers were shot in Himachal Pradesh. A few weeks later, two Spanish tourists were killed in Himachal Pradesh by robbers. Many foreign tourists are victims of violent crime in Kolkata.
In September 2006, criminals robbed the wallet of a British woman in Kolkata. The same month, a Japanese tourist was robbed on his way to Sudder Street. In October 2006, a foreigner was robbed in daylight on Park Street and the incidents never end.
Petty crime, like pickpocketing, bag snatching, etc. are widespread in India. Theft of valuables of foreigners from luggage on trains and buses is common. Travellers who are not in groups become easy victims of pickpockets and purse-snatchers. Purse snatchers work in crowded areas.
In India, stealing passports of foreigners from their luggage on trains and buses is widespread. Theft of U.S. passports is very common, especially in major tourist areas.
Many scams are perpetrated against foreign travellers, especially in Jaipur, the capital of Rajasthan. Scams usually target younger foreign tourists and suggest them that money can be made by privately transporting gems or gold or by taking delivery abroad of expensive carpets avoiding customs duties.
Such incidents pull the traveller over the course of several days and begin with a new scam artist who offers to show the foreign traveller the sights. They also offer cheap lodgings and meals to foreign travellers so that they can place the traveller in the physical custody of the scam artist and can leave the foreigner with threats and physical coercion. In the due process, the foreigner loses his passport.
In 2006, an American became a victim of a scam at Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport in Mumbai, by which she lost the US $77.
There are also taxi scams present in India, whereby a foreign traveller, who is not aware of the locations around Indian airports, is taken for a ride around the whole airport and charged for a full-fare taxi ride while the terminal is only a few hundred yards away. Overseas Security Advisory Council in a report mentioned the process about how to avoid taxi-scam.
Incidents of rape of foreign tourists at popular tourist spots are increasing in India. In March 2006, Biti Mohanty, son of a senior police official in Orissa, raped a German tourist in Alwar, Rajasthan. A Japanese woman was raped in Pushkar, Rajasthan on April 2, 2006.
In June 2007, a South Korean was raped near Manali. In September 2007, two Japanese women were gang-raped in Agra, a popular tourist spot in India where the Taj Mahal is situated.
The Indian state of Rajasthan, which is a popular destination among foreign tourists with one out of every three foreign travellers visiting the state, have been rattled by rape cases of foreign tourists. Bureau of Consular Affairs warned US women not to travel alone in India.
Crimes are present in every state of every country. No country is completely crime-free, yet the rate of crime differentiates them. Crimes in India are also spread throughout the country. Different states are known for different types of crimes. For example, North-eastern states are known for Naxals, Rajasthan is famous for crimes against foreigners, Punjab is known for Drugs, J&K is known for Terrorism, etc.
The country is widely covered with crimes, however, new laws by the government of India has led to their decrease. Still, the actions taken aren’t satisfactory, as the rate of different crimes has gone up.
Rate of crimes in India has increased or decreased and the strict laws aren’t worrisome for the offenders. The increase in crimes in India is due to the lack of facilities, poverty, knowledge, general awareness which lead them to commit such heinous crimes.
The criminals don’t worry about punishment by the court of law as long as they are successful in criminal activities.