Lead Poisoning: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, and Medico-Legal Importance

We have been discussing different types of Poisoning caused in humans ranging from mercury poisoning to arsenic poisoning, along with the aspects of how much they’re harmful to our health and can lead to disastrous conditions if it’s inhaled or consumed by mistake. The same situation applies to lead Poisoning, which is a kind of heavyweight greyish substance which is easily absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and is soluble in almost all sorts of gastric juices. Lead Poisoning isn’t a spontaneous condition and occurs after several months or years. It’s a hazardous medical condition that arises due to the high accumulation of lead in the body, which further drives into different organs, disturbs the workflow, and prevents the growth and development of numerous organs. It’s spread at such a high rate and is extremely toxic and harmful for children.  Lead Poisoning causes severe health issues and damages 50% of the […]

Arsenic Poisoning: Mechanism, Causes, Symptoms & Medico-Legal Importance

Arsenic is a harmful toxic metallic compound that is found in the soil, air, and water. Research analysts state that almost 95% of the water in Bangladesh and a few other countries are contaminated with arsenic, making the water unfit for drinking purposes. Arsenic Poisoning is a fatal medical condition that is caused due to accumulation of high levels of arsenic in the body. It affects various internal parts of the human body drastically, such as the liver and kidneys, leading to severe or death conditions. It’s seen that due to its accumulation, people are on the verge of death and thus need to be extremely aware while drinking water from unknown sources. In this article, we will discuss arsenic poisoning along with the causes, symptoms and treatment associated with it. Mechanism of Arsenic Poisoning The mechanism of arsenic excretion occurs due to cellular respiration damage, which is stimulated due to activation […]

Thallium Poisoning: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

Thallium is a heavy toxic metallic compound odorless, tasteless, and deposited in the water components with ease. It’s distributed throughout the earth’s crust but is available at a very low concentration. This compound was discovered by Sir William Crook in 1961 and is asserted to be harmful to humans. Thallium Poisoning is caused due to thallium, and its neighboring compounds, which are toxic, and one should avoid melting such harmful substances because its inhalation leads to health issues. It erupts the skin and spreads rapidly all over the human body. It’s similar to lead poisoning, and symptoms are observed after several years of exposure and not during the preliminary stages. The building block of thallium toxicity starts from the baseline and builds up to a huge level. This poisonous metallic compound is easily absorbed through GIT, skin, and respiratory system. It’s also considered similar to some of the alkali metals. […]

Factors Affecting the Action of Poison in Body

As per history of Toxicology, Poisons act in three ways. Local Remote  Combined  In reality, poisons act in various ways.  There are a lot of factors that affect the action of poisons are quantity or dose, form like the physical, mechanical combination, solubility, condition of the body, state of health, sleep and intoxication, tolerance.  There are other factors also such as cumulative action, idiosyncrasy, mode of administration, etc.  Factors that Modify the Action of Poisons  1. Quantity or Dose  Quantity is directly proportional to toxicity, i.e., If quantity increases, then toxicity also increases. According to dose, the mechanism of action may also change or vary. An example is that large doses of As cause death, whereas moderate doses and small doses produce irritant symptoms and therapeutic action.  2. Form Physical State  Poisons are most active in the gaseous state than in the liquid and least in the solid-state. Solubility  Solubility […]

Classification of Poisons Based on Nature of Poisoning

Poison is a natural or synthetic substance that causes damage to living tissues. It has a fatal or injurious effect on the body. It can be ingested, injected, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin. Poisons are classified on the basis of action, symptoms, based on their chemistry, intention, nature, use, etc. Every poison affects different organs of a body and shows different symptoms with varied fatality rate. Here, In this article, I have mentioned the classification of Poisons based on the nature of their poisoning. Classification of Poison on the Basis of Nature 1. HOMICIDE Features of an ideal homicidal poison are colorless, tasteless, and odorless. It’s cost should be cheap and readily available. Homicidal poisons should mimic any natural disease. To avoid doubt, Symptoms should occur late. After the appearance of symptoms, the fatal period should be less. No antidote is available for an ideal homicidal poison. Homicidal poisons are […]

Cadmium Poisoning: Causes, Signs & Symtoms, and Case Studies

Cadmium is a whitish color substance that is found within huge industrial areas. The prominent source of Cadmium is contended to be burning coal, and even the slightest intake or inhalation of this chemical compound can degrade our health conditions and lead to Cadmium Poisoning. Cadmium Poisoning is caused when someone is exposed to vast amounts of Cadmium through the air, water, food substances, and soil. It’s extremely fatal and toxic even at the lowest concentration and leads to cancer alongside damaging other vital organs and tissues in the human body. In addition, it leaves a drastic effect on all the functioning systems of the body and slows down the overall growth. This heavy toxic substance doesn’t break down nor deposit in the environment and is found in rechargeable batteries, fertilizers, mixed food products, pottery substances, paints and is also implemented in the electroplating procedures. Causes of Cadmium Poisoning The primary […]

Mercury Poisoning: Causes, Signs and Symptoms & Medico-Legal Importance

The kind of medical disease caused due to the inhalation of mercury is asserted as mercury poisoning. It is assumed to be available in different variations amidst our surroundings.  Mercury is a heavy metal that is harmful to our health, and its excess inhalation or intake leads to the mercury poisoning phenomenon within individuals. It can spread due to intake of food substances that comprise mercury or due to coming into contact with it, which sometimes leads to death and other disastrous conditions. Inhalation of such substances is often exposed from fishes/shellfishes, which humans tend to consume in their diet. Such circumstances arise because industrial factories throw out their contaminated industrial wastes into the river, which contains methylmercury in huge amounts, which get accumulated within the fishes and post the consumption of those fishes humans suffer from mercury poisoning. Apart from these, numerous other reasons lead to these troublesome conditions, […]

Different Types of Poisoning

Poisoning is the condition that occurs by the ingestion, inhalation, or injecting any drugs or poisonous substances or when the body comes in contact with any poisonous substances. Its symptoms commonly include Diarrhea, Vomit, Nausea, etc. Different substances has different efficiency, mortality rate, and effects on body. Types of Poisoning Poisoning have been classified into two types: Based on effect  Based on the way or process  Types of Poisoning on the basis of effect Acute Poisoning  Chronic Poisoning  Sub-acute Poisoning  Fulminant Poisoning ACUTE POISONING Acute Poisoning is produced by the adverse effects of a substance that occurs either from a single exposure or from multiple exposures in a short period. It usually takes less than 24 hours. In this Poisoning, the adverse effects on the body occur within 14 days of the administration of the substance. So, in acute Poisoning, the period is short, and the dosage is high. Symptoms are […]

Classification of Poisons on the Basis of Mode of Action

Poison is asserted as a toxic substance that is harmful to living organisms, and its intake leads to severe health conditions. Inhalation of toxins leads to a disturbance within the body and affects the metabolism of the living organism too. Though sometimes, the effect of the poison is not severe, and the individual suffers from subtle health changes. In Forensic Science, we have studied different types of poisons classified based on the mode of action and origin because of the difference in their respective properties. What is the Mode of Action? Mode of action is defined as a functional or anatomical modification at the cellular level arising from the exposure of a living organism to a material or a substance. It’s also asserted that a mechanism action describes such changes in a more efficient manner than the origin. The poisons classified under the mode of action often lead to severe […]

Types of Snake Venoms and Their Negative Affects on Body

Animal poisons have evolved over millions of years and Snake Venoms are not an exception, yet all snakes are not Venomous. Some snakes are considered non-venomous yet every snakebite should be treated as equally harmful because even a non-venomous snake can produce harmful inflammations, allergies, swelling, etc. to its prey. Snakes use their venom for two main purposes. Firstly, to kill its prey before eating it and secondly, for their defense mechanism from a predator. That’s how many people get attacked by snakes throughout the year. Snakebite was recently recognized as a tropical disease that has been neglected and affects 2.7 million people per year by WHO. There are about 3500 snake species in the world and only 250 of them are venomous. Among these only 52 poisonous snakes are found in India. Common dangerous snakes found in India are King Cobra, Common Cobra, Common Krait, Russel’s Viper, Saw-scaled Viper. […]

Determination of Drugs in Postmortem Blood and Bone Marrow

The ongoing drugs probe investigation by NCB ( Narcotics Control Bureau ) is one of the most substantial issues which has shaken the entire nation from the scratch. Across the ages, drugs are considered as an illegal substance that is prohibited to be consumed in our country which further states it to be a criminal offense. An individual can intake different types of drugs and simultaneously the determination of drugs is the most important aspect for the purpose of presenting solid evidence during the investigation purposes to the government officials. As per the medical terms, blood and bone marrow are the core specimens that are used for the purpose of testing and research work. The ultimate result following the whole list of norms and prototypes finally drives the medical or forensic toxicology experts to the final conclusion. This discussion is supposed to be in a bit detailed manner as a […]

Detection of Cocaine User by Fingerprint Testing

An impression left by the friction ridges present on tip of the fingers of a human is known as a fingerprint. The fingerprint is formed due to the presence of certain biological fluids, secreted by sweat pores present on the frictional ridges. These fluids composed of certain oils, salts, and other components that are deposited on the surface along with fingerprints. Along with these biological fluids the metabolites of cocaine get excreted and gets deposited within the latent fingerprint. The amount of information that these prints can give away is more than just personal identification, even though it is the main feature of the fingerprint but this is not the only feature. Fingerprints are also known to give away details such as the habits of a person, and, occupation of a person ( in some cases), where a person has been before the occurrence of crime, etc. Each of these […]

Cocaine Causes HIV, Hepatitis C Reveals Research || Effects & Treatment of Addiction

Cocaine is an intensely addictive energizer tranquillizer produced using the leaves of the coca plant local to South America. In spite of the fact that social insurance suppliers can utilize it for legitimate clinical purposes. For example, neighbourhood sedation for certain medical procedures, it is an illicit medication. As a road tranquillizer, it seems as though a fine, white, precious stone powder. Road vendors regularly blend it in with things like cornstarch, baby powder, or flour to build benefits. They may likewise blend it in with different medications, for example, the energizer amphetamine.   How individuals consume cocaine? Individuals grunt coke powder through the nose, or they rub it into their gums. Others break up the powder in water and infuse it into the circulation system. A few people infuse a mix of cocaine and heroin, called a Speedball which is much stronger than either of them single-handedly. Another well-known […]

History of Forensic Toxicology || Role of a Toxicologist || 1878 Vosburgh Poisoning Case Study

Toxicology can be defined as the branch of science which deals with the properties, lethal dose, effects, signs and symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and the postmortem findings in the cases of poisoning. Toxicology is also known as the study of the adverse effects of Xenobiotics. The term “Xenobiotics” is derived from the Greek word “Xeno” which means ‘Foreign’ and “bios” meaning ‘life’. Toxicology is a wide field and therefore, has several branches or types of toxicology. Those branches or types include Analytical Toxicology, Environmental Toxicology, Industrial Toxicology, Forensic Toxicology, Clinical Toxicology, Veterinary Toxicology, etc. Forensic Toxicology is the branch of Forensic science in which a Forensic Toxicologist applies the knowledge in determining the medical evidence to establish the extent of poison used or involved in the death of a person. It is determined by examining different tissues of the body. Common Terms in Forensic Toxicology History of Forensic Toxicology History of […]