Difference Between Nuclear DNA and Mitochondrial DNA

With the invention of the Cell by Robert Hooke came different cell components, and so did Mitochondria, our very own powerhouse of the cell invented by Albert von Kolliker. Located in the cytoplasm, Mitochondria is known to be the source of energy as it synthesizes Adenosine Triphosphate as the source of power from the food we eat. Due to this process, humans are energetic and have the strength to perform various activities depending on their age. But mitochondria have a lot more features than being just a powerhouse.As we all know, the genetic information that determines the characteristics and traits of an individual is stored in the DNA in the form of code made up of four chemical bases Adenine(A), Guanine(G), Cytosine(C), and Thymine(T). Human DNA consists of about 3 billion bases, and more than 99 percent of those bases are the same in all people. These bases pair up […]

Bite Mark Analysis During A Criminal Investigation

Forensic odontology is a branch of dentistry that deals with the examination and analysis of dental evidence and analysis of marks created by the teeth on the victim’s body relating it to be presented as in the interest of justice. It also deals with the use of teeth and oral structures for identification in a legal context. Various techniques involved in forensic odontology not only help with bite mark analysis, it also deals with the identification of victim remains during terrorist attacks, arson cases, accidents, mass disasters, etc. The principle basis in bite mark analysis and dental identification lies in the fact that no two oral cavities are alike and the teeth are unique to an individual hence the bite mark created by a set of teeth would also be different. The dental evidence of the deceased recovered from the scene of crime/occurrence is compared with the antemortem records for […]

Touch DNA And Its Hooked Controversy

We have heard a lot about shedding dead skin cells to the immediate environment of our body. Often not visible to our naked eyes, it does take place and is quite helpful in identifying an individual. Forensic science has always tried to focus on trace evidence and exploit any phenomenon that can be used as evidence. Touch DNA is quite a novel term and is one of the trace evidence. Let us know more about it and dive deep into this topic. History of Touch DNA “Touch DNA” is DNA obtained from biological material transferred from a donor to an object or a person during physical contact. Touch DNA, also known as Trace DNA, is a forensic method for analyzing DNA left at a crime scene. It is called “touch DNA” because it only requires a minimal amount of samples, such as the skin cells left on an object after […]

Microbial Forensics And Its Applications in Investigations

Microbial forensics is a new and emerging discipline that first gained globally recognized as the result of the Bacillus anthrax attacks in 2001. This growing discipline still remains within the early stages of development and faces substantial scientific challenges to provide a sturdy suite of technologies for identifying the source of a biological threat agent and attributing a bio-threat act to a specific person or cluster. Microbial forensics refers to the investigation of the utilization of bio-weapon, and therefore the accidental unleash or natural development of dangerous microorganisms. It can be also defined as Microbial forensics as a scientific discipline dedicated to analyzing evidence from a bioterrorism act, bio-crime, or unintended micro-organism/toxin release for attribution purposes. The unlawful use of biological agents poses substantial dangers to individuals, public health, the environment, the economies of states or nations as well as global peace. How Is Microbial Forensics Helpful in Investigation? A […]

Touch DNA / Trace Biological Stain Visible Collection

Authors:  Song Zhihong, Zhou Xiuzhi DNA evidence is a powerful tool to help crime solve that each human’s DNA is entirely unique. The advanced and innovative DNA collection technique can improve working efficiency and solve cases in a forensic laboratory. Biological stains (bloodstain, semen stains, urine stains, hair roots, teeth, bone, tissue, etc.) and Touch DNA (shedding skin cells) are the main sources of DNA evidence that could be extracted. Touch DNA includes DNA from skin cells, which is transferred to objects when touched by hands or other body parts, and trace biological stain deposits in smaller amounts, both are invisible to naked eyes and too tiny amount to develop with traditional forensic lights. However, trace DNA evidence places a key role to determine the suspect in a criminal investigation. Common sources of DNA evidence that can be extracted at the scene of crime or forensic: Touch DNA: Shedding skin […]

Difference Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

The human body is an ecosystem that consists of multiple organs. Cells form the basic structural and functional unit of life. Not only does the cell store DNA but it also consists of multiple cellular components necessary for the working of a human body. Organisms can be broadly divided into two types based on the structure and components of their cells, mainly Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. Key ingredients that make up a cell include plasma membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus (majorly the genetic material within), and ribosomes. Single-celled organisms that lack a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles are referred to as prokaryotes and the cell is referred to as prokaryotic cells. On the other hand, organisms consisting of cells that have a well-defined nucleus and membrane-bound organelles are referred to as eukaryotes and the cell is referred to as a eukaryotic cell. Prokaryotic Cells Generally, prokaryotic cells are not divided up inside through membrane […]

Forensic Odontology: Bite Marks as Evidence in Criminal Case

Forensic odontology is a branch of dentistry that deals with the examination and analysis of dental evidence and analysis of bite marks created by the teeth on the victim’s body relating it to be presented as in the interest of justice. It also deals with the use of teeth and oral structures for identification in a legal context. Various techniques involved in forensic odontology not only help with bite mark analysis it also deal with the identification of victim remains from terrorist attacks, arson cases, accidents, mass disasters, etc. The principle basis in bite mark analysis and dental identification lies in the fact that no two oral cavities are alike and the teeth are unique to an individual hence the bite mark created by a set of teeth would also be different. The dental evidence of the deceased recovered from the scene of crime/occurrence is compared with the antemortem records […]

Different Sources of DNA in a Human Body

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms. It is estimated that nearly every cell in a person’s body has the same DNA. Even though most of it is found in the nucleus of the cell, a small amount could also be found in the mitochondria referred to as mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA. As we all know the hereditary information that determines the characteristics and traits of an individual is stored in the DNA in the form of code made up of four chemical bases, Adenine(A), Guanine(G), Cytosine(C), and Thymine(T). Human DNA consists of about 3 billion bases and more than 99 percent of those bases are the same in all people. These bases pair up with each other, A with T and C with G to form units called base pairs. Each of them is attached to a sugar molecule and a phosphate […]

What is Epidemiology? | Forensic Applications of Epidemiology & Case Study

The field of biological sciences that deals with the study of the spreading of diseases and the population affecting them is referred to as epidemiology. We are in 2022 and the world has improved in terms of science. The worst pandemic of corona that affected the world is just one example of how improvement in epidemiology had proved to be extremely helpful in keeping check of the statistics of how the diseases are spread. With the advancements in every field of studies, nowadays the type of attacks on people have improved too. Bio wars where a person or a country attacks their enemy using biological weapons such as viruses, bacteria, or any such biological organism have become common among a lot of countries. Hence the application of this particular field in forensic science had proven to increase the probability of a successful investigation in certain crimes. What is Forensic Epidemiology? […]

Genetic Markers | Evolution, Types and Application of Genetic Markers

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) holds a small portion of the bigger genetic process that keeps occurring in our body. The genome holds the center of life and it, in turn, produces generations of new similar yet variant offsprings of the ancient ones. There are different aspects of viewing this genomic activity and that not only involves a view through simple DNA programming alone.  Certain identifiable locations in the genome can be traced across generations, they are called Genetic markers. They are nothing but specific DNA sequences with a known location on a chromosome that holds the essential tools for linkage and association studies. There are several techniques involved for detecting genetic variations in a living being, most of them are incorporated with forensic DNA profiling. Genetic markers were used to a greater extent to create livestock linkage maps using microsatellite markers. Evolution of Genetic Markers The history of genetic markers goes […]

DNA Typing: Significance and Applications

The genetic material that holds human life in this world is Deoxyribo-Nucleic Acid (DNA). It is present mostly inside the nucleus of each cell in the living body. Each nucleus has a pack of chromosomes which in turn contain DNA. The DNA molecule occurs in two strands that wind around each other forming a double helical shape. Each strand holds a backbone made of alternating sugar (deoxyribose) and phosphate groups. To the alternating sugars, each of the four typical DNA bases such as adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine are attached. The two strands are held together by bonds between the bases; adenine bonds with thymine, and cytosine bonds with guanine. The sequence of the bases along the backbones serves as instructions for assembling protein and RNA molecules. It’s a polymer of four bases–A, C, T, and G–but it allows enormous complexity to be encoded by the pattern of those bases, […]

Vegan Protein vs Animal Protein | Which is Better For You?

Proteins are among the most vital nutrients found in our bodies. They offer structural and functional support. Proteins can also help in the building and repair of tissues. Additionally, they are the building blocks of bones, blood, skin, and muscles. Since protein is an essential nutrient, it is not a surprise that you should be eating a balanced diet that is high in protein. But, the human body is not capable of taking in protein on its own, and therefore, it is crucial to consume a sufficient amount of protein daily. When protein is consumed it is broken into amino acids. The amino acid composition is 22. These amino acids are broken into essential and non-essential amino acids. Although our bodies can produce non-essential amino acids, there are nine essential amino acids that our body is not able to make. To acquire these nine vital amino acids the body requires […]

Mendelian Genetics | Mendelian Theory, Principles & Applications

The study of genes and genetic patterns of inheritance in the wide branch of biological science is referred to as genetics. The concept of gene, DNA, chromosomes, etc. had evolved biology into a field of wide research, due to which we now have hybridized crops with better yield, highly advanced technologies in farming, cloning, production of test-tube babies to even investigating a case of potential harm successfully in forensic science. Many bio wars were blown out due to the growth in the field of genetics. But who started this? Who invented this amazing concept that changed millions of lives? Quite surprisingly the father of genetics title is awarded to a mathematician, Gregor Mendel. Like many great artists, the work of Gregor Mendel was not appreciated until after his death. He is now called the “Father of Genetics,” but he was remembered as a gentleman who loved flowers and kept extensive […]

Vital Vitamins Required in Human Body

Nutrition is a key factor in our body. The correct amount and the essential kinds of nutrients are required to maintain a healthy life. Among the many important kinds of nutrients, vitamins required by the human body are in very little amounts, but the role it plays in maintaining the health of an individual is huge. Vitamins are any group of organic compounds which are essential for the normal growth and nutrition of a living being and are required in small quantities from the diet due to their incapability of being synthesized by the body.  Most of the vitamins required by a human being are obtained through water, which is advised to be consumed daily in an amount of 2-4 liters. The rest of it is acquired from a healthy diet. Each organism has different vitamin requirements, for example, humans need to acquire vitamin C from their diets whereas dogs […]

Mitochondrial DNA: DNA From The Very Own Powerhouse of Body

Cell, the basic structural and functional unit of every organism! This miraculous invention changed the outlook on how people looked at life. The beautiful smallest unit has a tinier substance that holds the secret to every life on earth called the nucleus. And the secret? Well as everybody is aware, DeoxyriboNucleic Acid (DNA) forms the basis of every life. It determines the traits, characters, and habits we inherit, the composition of our organic molecules, strategy of body functioning, the color of our hair, our eyes, the texture of our skin, and many more. But the nucleus is not the only miraculous substance that provides us with DNA. With the invention of the Cell by Robert Hooke, came different components of the cell and so did Mitochondria, our very own powerhouse of the cell invented by Albert von Kolliker. Located in the cytoplasm, Mitochondria is known to be the main source […]