Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS)

AFIS is a biometric identification system which uses the digital imaging technology to obtain, store and process the fingerprint data. AFIS has the ability to classify, match and store fingerprints and palm prints from both criminal and applicant records. Development of AFIS has brought the revolution in the field of forensic fingerprint examination. It has helped not only in accurate analysis as well as time effective analysis. The very first AFIS was created in 1974 by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Earlier this system only contained the minutiae or important features of fingerprints because it was expensive to store the whole fingerprint image. The processing of 1,00,000 prints took 30 minutes and now it’s even faster just in the blink of eyes. FBI uses the terms AFIS and IAFIS (Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System) interchangeably because of the longevity of FBI’s IAFIS. Now the identification systems support palm prints, […]

Forensic Fingerprinting Technology That Can Boost The Life Up!

Although the forensic sector has not been well developed in India, it has a vast effect in other countries that have helped them in a lot of solve cases and discover innovations. New researches, discoveries, and innovations always happen there that can set a new path for us too. Recently, the researchers of United Kingdom’s Loughborough University have developed an interesting and new discovery that can give a boost to solving crimes where defendants do not know a sheet of paper. Huh, not understood? Ok, no worries, let’s read the article further to know about that sheet. Fingerprints play a crucial role, not only in differentiating a person but how would it be when a case is solely relying on just a pattern of someone’s finger? There arises many cases where the innocent does not know some documents or papers but the case takes a 90° shift against them because […]

Personal Identification Using Lip Prints In an Investigation

Identification is the key point for forensic analysis. There are many characteristics of human beings that are considered unique and important from the view point of forensics for the purpose of identification. Lip prints are one of those which are unique to an individual, similar to fingerprints, footprints and palm prints. Identification of an individual is important in any case whether it is done by fingerprint, DNA, identity cards, dental patterns or Lip prints. Lip prints being a new addition in the field of personal identification is as effective as others due to its unique patterns. What are Lip Prints? Lips are soft, visible, fleshy folds of the mouth covered externally by skin and internally by mucous membrane. The mucous membrane shows numerous furrows and ridges which form a characteristic pattern called Lip Prints. The study of lip prints is known as cheiloscopy or quieloscopy that deals with the study […]

Footprints as Evidence in Criminal Investigation

Footprints are the chance prints left by the perpetrator at the crime scene. They are the impressions of the friction ridges found on the sole of the foot of human beings, that get imprinted on the surface on which the person has walked. The impressions formed are the result of Locard’s principle of exchange. Footprints are unique to every individual just like the fingerprints. There is a possibility in the case of fingerprints that the culprit may erase the fingerprints or had worn the gloves so the fingerprints must not be available at the crime scene, but it is difficult to avoid footprints. To avoid the footprints the culprit may wear footwear but then the footwear marks are obtained which are also of evidentiary value at the crime scene.  However, footwear marks evaluation is one of the methods involved in forensic examination, which involves techniques differing from the footprint examination […]

How Gait Pattern Helps in Identification?

Gait pattern refers to the pattern of walking of an individual person. This pattern is unique to each individual and is included in the forensic identification. Gait pattern analysis is a sort of tracking technique which is helpful in elucidating a lot of information about a person. This is studied under the field of forensic podiatry and the analyst is called forensic podiatrist. Gait analysis includes the scientific study of the gait pattern. This can be done by analyzing the footprints found on the surface and the CCTV footage in which the concerned person is seen walking. Gait pattern is formed due to the locomotion of the limbs. It is an unconscious act that’s why it is very helpful in forensic identification. Also footprints are one of the most encountered prints or impressions on the crime scenes of theft, burglary, homicide, sexual assaults, etc.  Analysis of Gait Pattern Forensic gait […]

Footprints and Its Forensic Significance

Footprints are the impressions of foot left by a person on any surface. The footprints are unique to individuals like the fingerprints. There is a possibility in the fingerprints that the culprit may erase the fingerprints or had worn the gloves so the fingerprints must not be available at the crime scene, but it is difficult to avoid footprints. To avoid the footprints the culprit may wear footwear but then the footwear marks are obtained which are also of evidentiary value at the crime scene. Footprints are potential evidence at the crime scene and are not be neglected.  At the scene of occurrence, footprints can be complete or partial. The prints have unique individual characteristics like- toe-prints, phalange-prints, crease-marks, pits or corns or deformity or crack marks.  There are some people who have the unique feature of flat-foot. It is the condition in which the complete instep region of the […]

Why Every Individual Has Different Fingerprints?

Interesting question, right! Do you know not only in every individual but fingerprints differ in your fingers too? Yeah, you read that correctly. Let me give you a practical example. We all use smartphones, where we put our fingerprints as one of the security features so that no one else can unlock them. Now here comes the exciting part, you might also have noticed if you have recorded the thumbprint of your left hand in your security features, it will only consider that. Even if you put your right hand’s thumb, it won’t consider that until and unless you have recorded it. Check it out if you haven’t, and if it opens, then congratulations, you are that one person among 64 billion chances. Even twins differ in fingerprints which is one of the reasons why we use it in biometrics though that topic is for another day.  Here we already know that it’s different, […]

Process of Extracting Fingerprints From Deceased Person

Fingerprints are the impressions formed on the fingers and thumbs of the individual in the womb. They are unique to every individual since every individual grows in a different intra-uterine environment including twins. Hence, these are extremely helpful in the identification of individuals. Fingerprints have been found to be extremely helpful to capture criminals as they leave their fingerprints at every place they touch barehand. They are even helpful in identification of a dead body by simply picking the prints from the dead person. For many years, science has relied upon fingerprints to identify individuals and also solve criminal cases as they are quite reliable and doesn’t vanish easily off from the finger. They even remain until the human body decomposes completely. Extraction fingerprints from the dead body is important in Mass Disaster cases, Homicidal cases, Accidents, Suicidal cases, etc. Therefore, it is crucial to extract the prints with extreme […]

Conventional Methods of Latent Fingerprint Development

While committing a crime, the culprit, even after taking precautions, leaves fingerprints according to Locard’s principle of exchange. Those left fingerprints are hidden. We cannot see them with our naked eyes. To visualize, collect, and preserve them, we have to use some developing techniques we will discuss here. To develop latent fingerprints at the scene of a crime, we can use mechanical methods that include the use of fluorescent powders or chemical methods, including iodine fuming, ninhydrin, cyanoacrylate, and silver nitrate method. In addition to the methods to develop latent prints, we will be discussing the collection and preservation of the latent prints collected to send them to the labs for its analysis. Physical Methods to Develop Latent Fingerprint The process of transforming the latent Fingerprints into visible prints by the use of powders or chemicals is known as development. We can use many scientific methods to develop latent prints. […]