Age Estimation of Living Individuals

Age is among the important features to establish the identity of an individual. It is usually based on the principles of forensic anthropology. Age estimation of the deceased is common practice in forensic medicine. But there are certain circumstances where the age of a living individual may form the basis of legal investigation. Methods of Estimating Age The methods of age estimation in living individuals are quite similar as well as different from the age estimation from the deceased. The following methods are involved for estimating age in living: Dental Development Dental developments estimate an almost accurate age of an individual. In human beings, the dentition is of two types- temporary and permanent. Temporary dentition consists of 20 teeth (4 incisors, 2 canines and 4 molars in each jaw) and generally begins at about six months and is completed by about two and half years. Permanent detention consists of 32 […]

Pugmark Examination in Wildlife Crimes

Pugmarks are studied under the category of track-mark evidence. They are the footprints or paw prints of all the animals and confirm their presence in a particular area. They are analogous to fingerprints and footprints of human beings and unique in nature for every individual animal. Therefore, they act as important evidence for profiling of animals. Pugmark examination can give a lot of information that helps in identifying an individual animal. A single pugmark can give the information about the gender, age, size, health conditions, time and direction in which the animal has moved. The scientific examination of pugmarks can link the suspect and crime scene with the victim animals. Pugmark examination is one of the important tasks for the wildlife crime analysts. They collect different sorts of data through pugmarks present in a particular area and estimate the population of different animals in that area. This helps them to […]

Forensic Investigation in Wildlife Crimes

The planet earth is filled with a lot of beauty because it has life on it and one of the most important forms of life is wildlife (fauna and flora). But due to the increasing greed of humans many wildlife species are on the verge of extinction because of the rapid hunting and poaching of the animals and deforestation, thus constituting wildlife crimes. Wildlife crime refers to the illegal trading (supplying, selling or trafficking), importing, exporting, processing, obtaining and consumption of wild fauna and flora, including timber and other forest products across national and international borders. International Consortium on Combating Wildlife Crime (ICCWC) defines wildlife crimes as the acts committed contrary to national laws and regulations intended to protect natural resources and to administer their management and use. This includes the illicit exploitation of natural resources, such as poaching of animals and unauthorized logging of trees. It may also include […]

Fentanyl: Uses, Side Effects, Medicolegal Importance & PM 09Appearances

Fentanyl is a potent synthetic opioid similar to morphine and it produces analgesia to a greater extent i.e. 50-100 times more than morphine. A dose of only 100 micrograms can produce equivalent analgesia to approximately 10 milligrams of morphine. It is a phenylpiperidine derivative which is structurally similar to pethidine and has become a common drug of abuse and an adulterant in illicit drugs because of its high potency. Fentanyl is popular among the people with the street names such as ‘apace’, ‘china girl’, ‘china white’, ‘china town’, ‘dance fever’, etc. Fentanyl is available in a water soluble, white crystalline powder that requires no preservative. The molecular formula for fentanyl is C₂₂H₂₈N₂O and molecular mass is 336.471g/mol. N-(1-(2-phenethyl)-4-piperidinyl-N-phenyl propanamide Derivatives of fentanyl include Alfentanil, Sufentanil, Remifentanil, and Carfentanil. Uses of Fentanyl Fentanyl is administered intravenously (IV), intramuscularly(IM), transdermally as skin patches, intranasally in the form of a volatile nasal spray […]

Amphetamines: Uses, Side Effects, Medicolegal Effects & PM Appearances

Amphetamine is a psychoactive drug stimulating the central nervous system and produces a false sense of euphoria which is followed by depression. It affects the chemicals in the brain and nerves that contribute to hyperactivity and impulse control. It also acts as a cardiovascular stimulant. Amphetamines is a psychoactive drug stimulating the central nervous system and produces a false sense of euphoria which is followed by depression. It affects the chemicals in the brain and nerves that contribute to hyperactivity and impulse control. It also acts as a cardiovascular stimulant. They are popular among people under the names ’pep pills’, ‘ups’ and ‘speed’. Amphetamines are available in varied forms from a powder/tablet to crystals and capsules. The color of the powder can range from white to brown, sometimes it may have traces of grey or pink. It has a strong smell and bitter taste. It can be administered orally, by […]

Heroin: Uses, Side Effects, Medico Legal Aspects & PM Appearances

Heroin is a potent analgesic drug with a strong euphoric effect. It is the phenanthrene derivative of the somniferous plant Papaver somniferum (poppy plant).  Heroin is a semisynthetic opioid derived from the acetylation of morphine and called diacetylmorphine or diamorphine. It is 2-3 times more potent than morphine. Among all the addictive drugs it is the most dangerous. It is sold illegally under the names- ‘smack’, ‘brown sugar’, ‘junk’ and ‘dope’. The place where heroin activities are conducted is generally known as a ‘shooting gallery’. The IUPAC name for heroin is (5𝛂,6𝛂)-7,8-didehydro-4,5-epoxy-17-methylmorphinan-3,6-diol acetate. Its molecular formula is C₂₁H₂₃NO₅ and molecular weight is 369.4g/mol. Heroin is metabolised to acetylmorphine, which is then hydrolysed to morphine within 30 to 60 minutes. Therefore during chemical analysis heroin is not detected.  It is available in the form of white to dark brown powder. The white heroin is soluble in water but insoluble in organic […]

Top 8 Most Dangerous Drugs on Earth

Drug addiction has become the most common threat for the youth all around the world. It is engulfing them deep and destroying their lives. In today’s busy and competitive world, people are facing a lot of pressure to stay in the competition with each other. This is causing a sense of stress and depression among the people, forcing them to take the path of drugs to deal with such situations. However, some people administer drugs just for fun. A drug is a chemical substance which has physiological effects on the body when introduced into the body. The drugs at initial stage provides a feeling of pleasure and relief, but slowly-slowly it makes the people its slave by causing addiction. And finally this addiction leads them to the horrible destination of death. Any drug that creates a chemical imbalance in a person’s body or causes harmful effects can be considered dangerous […]

Microbial Forensics in Biocrimes & Bioterrorism

There are a lot of microorganisms present in the environment that are not visible to the naked eye. Therefore we are more prone to the diseases and harmful effects caused by these microorganisms. And because of this peculiar feature of microorganisms, they have made their way in the category of criminal threats successfully leading to nuisance of biocrimes and bioterrorism. Biocrimes is the intentional release of biological agents (bacteria, virus, fungi or toxins) causing harm to an individual. On the other hand, bioterrorism is the intentional release of biological agents to harm a large population.  Biothreats gained attention in 2001 because of the anthrax letter attacks in the US. An anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) laden letter was sent to many politicians and prominent personalities in the USA, killing 5 people and sending 22 people to the hospital while forcing the evacuation of congressional office building, offices of New York governor, television […]

BioTerrorism: An Overview

Bioterrorism, also referred to as biological warfare, is the intentional release of biological agents that threaten to cause disease or death among the human population, food crops and livestocks. Biological agents are the organisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi, insects or toxins that can kill or disable people, livestock and food crops. These biological agents are usually natural but can be cultivated in laboratories or improvised to cause more harmful effects. The biological agents can be categorised into following categories depending upon their ability to disseminate among the population: Category A:- This category includes the agents which disseminate easily among the population and poses a risk to national security, as they are transmitted person to person causing high mortality rate. Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis), botulism (Clostridium botulinum), plague, smallpox (Variola major) and viruses like ebola, marburgh, etc. are some of its examples. Category B:- The agents which can disseminate moderately among the […]

Strung Through All The Cells- The DNA

The human hereditary material known as Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA holds several hereditary characters in each organism. This long molecule which contains information that is needed for organisms to both develop and reproduce is a complex structure made up of organic compounds. DNA is mostly present in the nucleus (other than mitochondrial DNA) and is packed along with components such as chromosomes. DNA is found in every cell in the body and is passed down from parent to child. It is self-replicating and contains our genetic code. But the interaction of this genetic code and DNA with the outside world ultimately forms the human being. The most fascinating part is that nearly every cell in our body has the same DNA.  Invention & History of DNA Long before the recorded work of DNA discovery, In 1866 Gregor Mendel known as the father of genetics suggested his Mendelian principles which stated […]

Tools And Equipments Used In Crime Scene Investigation

Forensic investigators are called to the crime scene to collect evidence and examine them, which will help law enforcement agencies to use the report for the further proceeding of the case. Crime scene investigation is an exact science. Crime scene investigation need to be able to use many different tools and collect evidence in a way that does not contaminate it. A crime scene is not fixed. Any physical scene, anywhere, may provide potential evidence to an investigator, including the victim’s body, any building, vehicles, and objects found at those locations. Depending on the crime scenes and the type of crime that occurred, the investigator brings the kits, including the necessary equipment within. Hundreds of items make up a typical crime scene kit, which may include anything from Q-tips to bolt cutters to a hacksaw. Big or small, shared or separately owned, a crime scene investigator’s crime scene kit offers […]

The Case Study of Grim Sleeper’s Victims

“Tales of the Grim Sleeper” is a crime film premiered on HBO. It’s a real-life story of an American Serial killer that will leave you with fear in the pit of your stomach. To put it most simplistically: This movie is scary, and so is the actual case. Lonnie David Franklin Jr., the so-called Grim Sleeper, is a serial killer who preyed on Los Angeles women for more than two decades. He targeted women who were drug addicts or prostitutes and often dumped their naked bodies alongside roads or in the trash. Serial killers have always been a matter of interest whenever we talk about murders with the same pattern since the motive behind all their attacks is the same. Let’s dive deep into this case of Grim sleeper and his victims and know how this case was different and scary from other criminal cases. Murders by Grim Sleeper The […]

Difference Between Nuclear DNA and Mitochondrial DNA

With the invention of the Cell by Robert Hooke came different cell components, and so did Mitochondria, our very own powerhouse of the cell invented by Albert von Kolliker. Located in the cytoplasm, Mitochondria is known to be the source of energy as it synthesizes Adenosine Triphosphate as the source of power from the food we eat. Due to this process, humans are energetic and have the strength to perform various activities depending on their age. But mitochondria have a lot more features than being just a powerhouse.As we all know, the genetic information that determines the characteristics and traits of an individual is stored in the DNA in the form of code made up of four chemical bases Adenine(A), Guanine(G), Cytosine(C), and Thymine(T). Human DNA consists of about 3 billion bases, and more than 99 percent of those bases are the same in all people. These bases pair up […]