Top 8 Addictive Drugs/Substances on Earth

Drug addiction has become a worldwide problem, especially among teenagers. It is a major social evil of modern times. It has spread its feeler among the young and the old. Drug addiction is a state of mind and body in which a person has lost self-control in respect of the drug to which the person is addicted.  A person consumes the drug repeatedly leaving aside all values of life. Drug addict also resorts to crime even to satisfy their repetitive craving for the drug. The effects of addiction are mainly deteriorative personality changes. Drug addicts cannot concentrate on any work. Drug addiction is characterized by two or more attributes such as psychological dependence, physical dependence, and tolerance. The addicted person avoids social contact and slowly becomes a mental, physical, and moral wreck to society. There are a number of addictive drugs found on the earth but the 8 most addictive […]

Bio-Terrorism: An Unusual Case Study of Anthrax Attack

Most of you must be aware of the bio-terror Anthrax attacks from 2001. Anthrax is one of the zoonotic occupational diseases. Anthrax is a disease caused by the Bacillus anthracis which is a rod-shaped immobile aerobic gram-positive bacterium with spore that lives in soil. Randomly anthrax occurs in human beings with low frequency. Most cases of anthrax area unit not heritable through contact with infected animals or contaminated animal product. Depending on the transmission method of the disease, clinical manifestations occur in three classes which include Cutaneous, respiratory, and gastrointestinal anthrax. The respiratory form is taken into account because the most fatal and rare kind of anthrax intends to show complicated and strange manifestations. In this modern world with new technology, different kinds of criminal activities have also occurred. One of them includes the use of biology. On one side where biology has been used successfully to study the human body and organisms to benefit society, […]

Barbiturates: Uses, Fatal Dose, Poisoning Symptoms, Metabolism, Medico-Legal Importance

Barbiturate is one of the important sedatives or analgesics drugs that are tremendously being used as drugs of addiction. These have depressant effects upon the body and make it insensitive to pain or depression. All barbiturates are derivatives of barbituric acid. The variations are found due to the substitution of hydrogen atoms by alkyl, aryl, or other groups. They are also known as barbitones or barbitals. These substances are increasingly being used by drug addicts as they are comparatively more easily available, less costly, and are considered less dangerous.  Classification of Babiturates Based on Time of Action Long-Acting Barbiturates– These drugs induce sleep from 8 to 24 hours are long- acting. An example includes Barbitone, Pheno-barbitone, Methyl Phenobarbitone etc.  Intermediate Acting Barbiturates– These drugs produce effect in less duration from 4 to 10 hours are intermediate- acting. An example includes Allobarbitore, Butobarbitone and Amylobarbitone.  Short-Acting Barbiturates– These drugs produce effect […]

Pegasus Spyware Controversy And Its Investigation in India

Privacy is our fundamental right and its violation by anyone is directly inviting a criminal charge against them; be it a person, an organization, or any Government entity.   Cybercrimes, the new generation of crime is spreading like wildfire. In this era of the internet, our privacy is not so private to us! With the advancement of technologies and the presence of dexterous researchers and experts amongst us, the dark side of technological breakthroughs can’t be overlooked. Cybercrimes have increased with the constant development in technology. In a recent case in India, a controversy about Pegasus Software erupted and it was revealed that an Israeli company targeted the mobile phones of high authority officials and many others. The controversy went on to become a national-level investigation. Pegasus spyware is one of many software that can be used for betterment or to destroy some lives depending on the circumstances it is used […]

A Look back at The Sweetheart Murders Case Study

In the winter of 1980, two UC Davis freshmen, John Riggins and Sabrina Gonsalves, were abducted and murdered. The case became known as the “sweetheart murders.” It took more than 30 years to solve the mystery of their disappearance and finally close the case. The Missing Van and Recovered Dead Bodies On 20th December 1980, two students from the University of California at Davis, Sabrina Gonsalves, and John Riggins, went missing. A day and a half after the search began, when the dense overnight fog began to lift, police spotted the missing couple’s van parked off a rural roadway some 30 miles from Davis, Calif. There was no sign of the couple inside the van so police searched the surrounding area. They soon discovered their bodies hidden in the brush in a nearby ravine. Their throats were slashed and their mouths and eyes were covered with duct tape. There were […]

The Cold Case of Valerie Percy’s Murder

Fifty-six years later, it remains one of Illinois’ best-known and most mysterious unsolved killings. Valerie Jean Percy, 21, was found beaten and stabbed to death in her bed on 18th September 1966, in her family’s Kenilworth mansion. It was the first homicide in the history of the North Shore suburb. Cold cases enjoy a timeless appeal. That’s especially true on the North Shore of Chicago, where unsolved murders are incredibly rare. The most infamous one garnered national coverage. Many Chicagoans may not remember the details of the unthinkable crime, but the name is sure to spark some memories. Incidents of Valerie Percy’s Murder A dark morning, waves on Lake Michigan an elegant home on the beach, and a senatorial candidate at home with his close knit family in one of Chicago’s wealthiest suburbs. This is the unlikely setting for the most notorious, and baffling cold case murder of the 1960s. The daughter of […]

Evolution and Scope of Digital Genome

Since the discovery of DNA for over a century, genomic research has come a long way and the sequencing of the entire human genome is one of the topics. DNA has a unique structure responsible for an organism’s genetic makeup, and any two individuals cannot possess the same DNA sequence. So, in order to understand the complete genetic construction of an organism, we need to analyze and record the DNA sequence of the whole genome. For humans, reaching this point took a very long time due to the lack of technology. Scientists were not aware of how to deal with such a large cluster of information and where to store it but recent advances in technology and research enabled us to digitalize and store it without trouble. DNA is a complex framework of proteins that is responsible for the transfer of genetic information through generations and also has additional functions […]

Forensic Odontology: Bite Marks as Evidence in Criminal Case

Forensic odontology is a branch of dentistry that deals with the examination and analysis of dental evidence and analysis of bite marks created by the teeth on the victim’s body relating it to be presented as in the interest of justice. It also deals with the use of teeth and oral structures for identification in a legal context. Various techniques involved in forensic odontology not only help with bite mark analysis it also deal with the identification of victim remains from terrorist attacks, arson cases, accidents, mass disasters, etc. The principle basis in bite mark analysis and dental identification lies in the fact that no two oral cavities are alike and the teeth are unique to an individual hence the bite mark created by a set of teeth would also be different. The dental evidence of the deceased recovered from the scene of crime/occurrence is compared with the antemortem records […]

40-Year-Old Murder Mystery of Michelle Martinko Solved

What do we know about Michelle Martinko and the arrest that re-opened the 40 years old cold case? Four decades ago, 18-year-old Michelle Marie Martinko was found stabbed to death in the family’s car in the parking lot of a Cedar Rapids mall. Exactly 39 years after her death, police took a Manchester man into custody after matching his DNA to blood found at the crime scene. Jerry Lynn Burns, 65, faced a jury in February 2020, bringing momentum to the case that was left unsolved for years. Let’s go into the details of this famous cold case and its adjudication. Case History of Michelle Martinko Murder Case Michelle Martinko’s dead body was found by the police in her parents’ tan 1972 Buick at Cedar Rapids’ Westdale Mall parking lot around 4 am on 20th December, 1979. The Kennedy High School senior had driven to the mall after a school choir banquet […]

Different Sources of DNA in a Human Body

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms. It is estimated that nearly every cell in a person’s body has the same DNA. Even though most of it is found in the nucleus of the cell, a small amount could also be found in the mitochondria referred to as mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA. As we all know the hereditary information that determines the characteristics and traits of an individual is stored in the DNA in the form of code made up of four chemical bases, Adenine(A), Guanine(G), Cytosine(C), and Thymine(T). Human DNA consists of about 3 billion bases and more than 99 percent of those bases are the same in all people. These bases pair up with each other, A with T and C with G to form units called base pairs. Each of them is attached to a sugar molecule and a phosphate […]

What is Epidemiology? | Forensic Applications of Epidemiology & Case Study

The field of biological sciences that deals with the study of the spreading of diseases and the population affecting them is referred to as epidemiology. We are in 2022 and the world has improved in terms of science. The worst pandemic of corona that affected the world is just one example of how improvement in epidemiology had proved to be extremely helpful in keeping check of the statistics of how the diseases are spread. With the advancements in every field of studies, nowadays the type of attacks on people have improved too. Bio wars where a person or a country attacks their enemy using biological weapons such as viruses, bacteria, or any such biological organism have become common among a lot of countries. Hence the application of this particular field in forensic science had proven to increase the probability of a successful investigation in certain crimes. What is Forensic Epidemiology? […]

THE Mysterious Unsolved Cold Case of Hinterkaifeck Murders

The unsolved, gruesome and famous murder mysteries have always grabbed our attention. Isn’t it? Hinterkaifeck murders or also known as Farm Murders just like its name is one of the creepiest, catchy and ghastly murder cases in German History. Hinterkaifeck was the name of the farm owned by the Gruber family and it was the same place where the dead bodies of the entire family members were found. Case History of Hinterkaifeck Murders Hinterkaifeck was a farm near the German towns of Schrobenhausen and Ingolstadt. It was occupied by 63-year-old Andreas Gruber and his family. His family consisted of his 72-year-old wife Cazilia, and their 35-year-old daughter Viktoria Gabriel. Viktoria’s children, 7-year-old Cazilia and 2-year-old Josef, also shared the home. On March 31, a maid named Maria Baumgartner also started working for the family and living with them. They were all found struck dead. The perpetrator lived with the six corpses of the […]

Genetic Markers | Evolution, Types and Application of Genetic Markers

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) holds a small portion of the bigger genetic process that keeps occurring in our body. The genome holds the center of life and it, in turn, produces generations of new similar yet variant offsprings of the ancient ones. There are different aspects of viewing this genomic activity and that not only involves a view through simple DNA programming alone.  Certain identifiable locations in the genome can be traced across generations, they are called Genetic markers. They are nothing but specific DNA sequences with a known location on a chromosome that holds the essential tools for linkage and association studies. There are several techniques involved for detecting genetic variations in a living being, most of them are incorporated with forensic DNA profiling. Genetic markers were used to a greater extent to create livestock linkage maps using microsatellite markers. Evolution of Genetic Markers The history of genetic markers goes […]

Case Study of South Korea’s Missing Frog Boys

Crime cases involving children are one of the most disturbing cases. This missing case of Frog Boys was one of the most famous cases for missing children until they were found dead in South Korea. This case still remains unsolved and equally mysterious. More so when five young children disappear without a trace. The case of the missing frog boys from 1991 is a confusing and baffling one that had shocked investigators and common people alike. The name evolved as their story began to pick up traction. The boys were searching for salamander eggs, which lead to frog eggs. The eggs were dropped and the five victims were simply known as the “Frog Boys”. Missing Report of Frog Boys The Frog Boys was a group of five boys who disappeared in Daegu, South Korea on March 26, 1991. Woo Cheol-won, Jo Ho-yeon, Kim Young-gyu, Park Chan-in, and Kim Jong-sik, aged […]