DNA Typing: Significance and Applications

The genetic material that holds human life in this world is Deoxyribo-Nucleic Acid (DNA). It is present mostly inside the nucleus of each cell in the living body. Each nucleus has a pack of chromosomes which in turn contain DNA. The DNA molecule occurs in two strands that wind around each other forming a double helical shape. Each strand holds a backbone made of alternating sugar (deoxyribose) and phosphate groups. To the alternating sugars, each of the four typical DNA bases such as adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine are attached. The two strands are held together by bonds between the bases; adenine bonds with thymine, and cytosine bonds with guanine. The sequence of the bases along the backbones serves as instructions for assembling protein and RNA molecules. It’s a polymer of four bases–A, C, T, and G–but it allows enormous complexity to be encoded by the pattern of those bases, […]

Vegan Protein vs Animal Protein | Which is Better For You?

Proteins are among the most vital nutrients found in our bodies. They offer structural and functional support. Proteins can also help in the building and repair of tissues. Additionally, they are the building blocks of bones, blood, skin, and muscles. Since protein is an essential nutrient, it is not a surprise that you should be eating a balanced diet that is high in protein. But, the human body is not capable of taking in protein on its own, and therefore, it is crucial to consume a sufficient amount of protein daily. When protein is consumed it is broken into amino acids. The amino acid composition is 22. These amino acids are broken into essential and non-essential amino acids. Although our bodies can produce non-essential amino acids, there are nine essential amino acids that our body is not able to make. To acquire these nine vital amino acids the body requires […]

Mysterious Cold Case of Tamara Greene

Tamara Greene was an exotic dancer known as Strawberry. In April of 2003, she was killed in a drive. An unsubstantiated rumor later spread that she had danced at the never-proven Manoogian Mansion party and that she had been murdered to cover it up.  The murder of this exotic dancer made headlines and the case still remains a mystery. Here in this case study we will look into the cold case of Tamara Greene that was never solved. The Case In the early morning hours of April 30, 2003, Tamara Greene was shot to death in a drive-by shooting. She was in a car with her boyfriend Eric Mitchell. Mitchell survived the shooting. Greene was in the driver’s seat and they were in front of Mitchell’s house. They had just left the club where she worked as a stripper. It was approx 3:40 am in the midnight. A white SUV […]

Mendelian Genetics | Mendelian Theory, Principles & Applications

The study of genes and genetic patterns of inheritance in the wide branch of biological science is referred to as genetics. The concept of gene, DNA, chromosomes, etc. had evolved biology into a field of wide research, due to which we now have hybridized crops with better yield, highly advanced technologies in farming, cloning, production of test-tube babies to even investigating a case of potential harm successfully in forensic science. Many bio wars were blown out due to the growth in the field of genetics. But who started this? Who invented this amazing concept that changed millions of lives? Quite surprisingly the father of genetics title is awarded to a mathematician, Gregor Mendel. Like many great artists, the work of Gregor Mendel was not appreciated until after his death. He is now called the “Father of Genetics,” but he was remembered as a gentleman who loved flowers and kept extensive […]

A Glance at The Bennet Family Murders

The very famous, more than three decades old case of Bennet family murders has recently been in the news. This horrific and cold case of Aurora, Colorado has kept everyone wondering about the culprit while this horrendous incident kept sending chills to the bones of people all around the world. Let us have a look at this unforgettable case of the Bennet family murders. The Deadly Night of Incident For Bennet Family On the night of January 16th, 1984 a gruesome discovery was made at a house on 16300 East Center Drive, Aurora. The bludgeoned bodies of husband and wife, Bruce and Debra Bennett, were discovered and it soon became evident that both were attacked with a knife and beaten to death. Later autopsies revealed that the Bennett’s had died due to blunt force trauma and that their attacker had likely used a hammer. 28-year-old Bruce Bennett had jumped into action […]

How to Become a Crime Scene Investigator in India?

Shows like Sherlock Holmes and C.I.D have always been interesting and motivational enough for the younger generations to pursue a career as a Crime Scene Investigator. Fantasizing themselves as the dexterous detective who solves the case as soon as he/she reaches the crime scene is a dream for many of the young minds out there. In India, the role of crime scene investigator is not defined and specific. Most of the time the crime scene investigators are either police personnel themselves, forensic scientists/experts, and sometimes even private investigating agencies or detectives. Crime Scene Investigator Crime scene investigation is a multidisciplinary and systematic search of the crime scene that involves diligent observation and documentation, photography and sketching of the scene; the identification, processing, and collection of physical evidence such as fingerprints, footwear impressions, hair, fibers, biological fluids, and materials for DNA analysis; and perhaps most important for the application of careful […]

Vital Vitamins Required in Human Body

Nutrition is a key factor in our body. The correct amount and the essential kinds of nutrients are required to maintain a healthy life. Among the many important kinds of nutrients, vitamins required by the human body are in very little amounts, but the role it plays in maintaining the health of an individual is huge. Vitamins are any group of organic compounds which are essential for the normal growth and nutrition of a living being and are required in small quantities from the diet due to their incapability of being synthesized by the body.  Most of the vitamins required by a human being are obtained through water, which is advised to be consumed daily in an amount of 2-4 liters. The rest of it is acquired from a healthy diet. Each organism has different vitamin requirements, for example, humans need to acquire vitamin C from their diets whereas dogs […]

Choosing Criminal Profiling as a Career Choice in the US

Criminal profiling as a profession seems very enticing to many of us who are interested in the field of investigation and policing yet the information that we have regarding criminal profiling as a career is very limited. Before choosing any profession, we should have all the background knowledge about it. A criminal profile is a collection of inferences about the qualities of the person responsible for committing a crime or a series of crimes. It requires the use of the scientific method, an applied understanding of the science of logic, and the ability to know when someone is wrong. The profile is a mixture of social, physical, and psychological characters of the criminal and sometimes even biological traits if available. What is Criminal Profiling? Criminal profiling is also known as Offender profiling or psychological profiling is an investigative tool that aids the identification, apprehension, and conviction of an unknown offender by […]

Role of Forensic Scientists in Convicting a Criminal?

Forensic science is an integral part of the criminal justice system and forensic scientists are the man at arms of this field. The role of a forensic scientist in a conviction of criminal is of immense importance but, is it 100% or not is a big question to be asked and discussed?  Theoretical Role of Forensic Scientists The role of a forensic scientist starts from the very first instance of visiting a crime scene till the conviction of an offender. The searching of evidence, collection of the evidence, packing and preservation of the evidence, testing of various pieces of evidence according to their nature in various divisions of a forensic lab, preparation of the report, maintaining the integrity of the evidence and report, maintaining the chain of custody and finally giving your unbiased opinion as an expert in the court of law are the key duties of a forensic scientist. […]

Top 8 Crime Shows Worth Watching For Forensic Students

If you are an Indian and a 90’s kid, C.I.D would have definitely been the only show that gave you a fictitious knowledge of forensic sciences. Our very own Dr. Salunke is the superhero, without whom no case would have been solved. No matter how many doors Daya must have broken, it was Dr. Salunke who gave the final breakthrough.  Other than our very own version of Sherlock Holmes it was the very authentic Sherlock Holmes movies that gave us the best kind of adrenaline rush. Watching Sherlock unraveling the case slowly and scientifically was always enticing. So, if you are a forensic student, your love for crime and forensic shows is quite evident. Here is a list of some of the shows you would love binge-watching. 8 Crime Shows Forensic Aspirants Must Watch 1. Sherlock Holmes You can watch this crime show on Netflix. Sherlock is an entertaining TV […]

A Brief Overview on Organized Crime

Industrial Revolution, Research and Developments in the field of Science and Technology, globalization and liberalization of the economies, and internationalization of trade and marketing are aimed at the progress and prosperity of human society but the same has also become sources of organized crimes at national and international levels. Most of the time these crimes are committed by those who are at the helm of affairs. Information Technology has opened new vistas for the commission of organized crimes throughout the world. It has paved the way for innovating new techniques and equipment for the commission of cybercrimes in various ways, by jumping out of the purview of law and territorial limits but under the grab of law. Organized crimes are not new. They are in existence for times immemorial in almost every society. These crimes are generally committed by criminals with common purposes like luxurious living and power shows. Social […]

Jamtara Case- A Cybercrime Tale in India You Must Know

Have you ever gotten a call from Jamtara yet? Jamtara is a small city close to the Naxalite belt which is located in the Indian state of Jharkhand. Jamatara is considered as the place’s homegrown for the phishing industry of India. This crime has become so common that now people say ‘mere Saath jamtara ho gya’. Lately, new Jamatara like hotspots has also come up in Haryana, UP, Gujarat, and Rajasthan. How Jamatara Became the Cybercrime Hub? Cyber experts say that such phishing scams originate from smaller towns where the police are not active or not able to deal with these criminals unlike in metropolitans cities where police departments keep track and conduct raids related to this crime. Jamtara only came to the limelight of the police or law enforcement when the amount of extorted or a number of cases became too big to ignore. Why People Fall Prey to Cybercrimes […]

Mitochondrial DNA: DNA From The Very Own Powerhouse of Body

Cell, the basic structural and functional unit of every organism! This miraculous invention changed the outlook on how people looked at life. The beautiful smallest unit has a tinier substance that holds the secret to every life on earth called the nucleus. And the secret? Well as everybody is aware, DeoxyriboNucleic Acid (DNA) forms the basis of every life. It determines the traits, characters, and habits we inherit, the composition of our organic molecules, strategy of body functioning, the color of our hair, our eyes, the texture of our skin, and many more. But the nucleus is not the only miraculous substance that provides us with DNA. With the invention of the Cell by Robert Hooke, came different components of the cell and so did Mitochondria, our very own powerhouse of the cell invented by Albert von Kolliker. Located in the cytoplasm, Mitochondria is known to be the main source […]

Increase in CyberCrimes in 21st Century

Consequent to the advancement of information technology and computer network, a variety of legal issues related to the use and misuse of the Internet as digital processing devices such as piracy, Intellectual Property Rights violations, pornography, commercial and banking frauds, etc. have emerged which need to be tackled through the instrumentality of the law. Since cyberspace has no boundaries, nor has its physical characteristics such as sex, age, etc. This leads to a big challenge before the law enforcement agencies. Because of the anonymity of its character and negligible chances of being detected, cyber offenders are misusing computer technology for committing a variety of crimes that need to be prevented by effective law and regulatory measures. As per NCRB (National Crime Record Bureau) report, cybercrime surged 12% across the country even as other crimes such as murder, theft, etc witnessed a drop due to national and regional lockdowns in the […]