Butcher of Bosnia: Serbian Who Committed Crimes Against Humanity

Ratko Mladić is a Bosnian Serb convicted war criminal and colonel-general who led the Army of Republika Srpska (VRS) during the Yugoslav Wars. In 2017, he was found guilty of committing war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. The 78-year-old Ratko Mladić, known as “The Butcher of Bosnia”, had played a key role in the ethnic cleansing and civil war that followed the break-up of Yugoslavia in the 1990s. Ratko Mladić was born in Bozanovici, on 12 March 1942. Upon finishing elementary school, Mladić worked in Sarajevo as a whitesmith for the Tito Company. He entered the Military Industry School in Zemun in 1961. He then went on to the KOV Military Academy and the Officers Academy thereafter. Upon graduating on 27 September 1965, Mladić began his career in the Yugoslav People’s Army. On 14 January 1991, he was promoted again, […]

Mutation and Its Types

The gradual change in the biological characteristics of every organism has been tagged for ages as the process of “evolution”. As stated by Darwin, we all evolve from a primate version of ancient organisms. The theory of evolution could be argumentative, however, the fact remains that all of us undergo different biological and hereditary changes eventually. The best example of this would be a mutation. Typically mutation could be defined as the change in the structure of the gene, or DNA to be specific, resulting in a variant that may be transmitted to subsequent generations caused by the alteration of single base units in DNA or the deletion, insertion, or rearrangement of larger sections of genes or chromosomes. It could be a result of DNA copying mistakes made during cell division, exposure to ionizing radiation, or any sort of mutagens. Mutagen can be any chemical element that causes a mutation […]

10 Common Crimes Committed By Juveniles

The rate of crime has always been on a rise, sometimes fluctuating. Juvenile crimes are quite a novel concept if we look back in time. “If every saint has a past then every criminal has a future,” said Mahatama Gandhi. In the case of child offenders, special care should be given as it is always within the ambit of being repaired in most cases. Children committing offenses is not new but the gravity of punishment that they received earlier was not justifiable. Juveniles are immature in nature and often commit crimes due to a lack of proper education and upbringing. So punishing them according to adult laws and keeping them in adult prisons will only increase their knowledge of crimes and will not be efficient for the rehabilitation process. To combat this issue of juveniles being harassed and educated about more crimes instead of being punished for their actions or […]

Examination of Body Fluid Specimen For Forensic Investigations

Forensic experts come across different types of evidence ranging from physical to biological. Body fluids among them are some major ones. According to Locard’s principle of exchange, every contact leaves a trace. Thus a contract between two individuals especially when it comes to violent crimes could deposit sufficient amounts of bodily evidence between two of them, body fluids such as blood, semen, saliva or sweat could hence help in relating a person to the crime or victim or suspect. Many body fluids are invisible to naked eyes or might not be easily noticeable due to their presence in very small quantities or mixtures. Hence some tests that relied historically on the use of chemical or enzymatic assays were often presumptive and generally limited in specificity or sensitivity. Similarly, there are confirmatory tests that rely on microscopic and immunological tests that confirm the presence of certain body fluid or its components. […]

Carbohydrates: Classification, Function, Benefits & Working

One of the essential macronutrients that are required by the human body is carbohydrates. In simple terms, it can be described as a form of organic macronutrient which provides the energy for the regular proper functioning of the human body and is obtained through diet mostly. This compound is made of essential elements like Carbon, Oxygen, and Hydrogen. Hence chemically or in the perspective of biochemical science carbohydrate can be defined as, a molecule consisting of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen atoms, usually with a hydrogen-oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 and an empirical formula of Cm(H2O), wherein which few carbohydrates like uronic acids, deoxy sugars such as fructose are excluded. The term is most common in biochemistry, where it is a synonym of saccharide, a group that includes sugars, starch, and cellulose. Carbohydrates are an essential fuel for the central nervous system and energy for working muscles. They also prevent protein […]

Identification of DNA From Dental Remains

The field of forensic science which uses the study of teeth, their biology, properties, and structure in the application of solving crimes or in any procedure as such supporting the identification of individuals is referred to as forensic odontology. This field has been of great use especially in joint massacres when bodies are left in an unrecognizable state. The characteristics of teeth, their alignment, and the overall structure of the mouth help in the identification of a specific person. Another application of forensic odontology in a criminal investigation is bite mark analysis. A forensic odontologist can analyze the bite marks left on a victim and compare them with the tooth structures of a suspect to make a comparison. The use of dental records such as x-rays and dental casts allows dental remains to be connected to a victim particularly in circumstances such as decomposition, and odontological comparison is possible since […]

Examinations of Bloodstains Found At The Scene Of Crime

Blood is a fluid connective tissue of our body, also known as the fluid of life. As we know, it transports and circulates oxygen to different parts of our body and improves our immunity. Due to its abundant presence in the human body, when a violent crime such as murder has occurred, blood is the most found body fluid at the scene of a crime. Analysis of bloodstains can help in the detection of species, identification of the victim, and even relates it to the suspect through blood detection assays and DNA sequencing. Hence blood as evidence is a very important field of forensic science, especially forensic serology. Blood consists of red blood cells(RBCs) also known as erythrocytes which have a life span of about 3-4 months in human beings and mature erythrocytes do not have nuclei, therefore, lack nuclear DNA. White blood cells or leukocytes on the other hand […]

The Mysterious Case Study of The Black Doodler

The Black Doodler was a skilled artist. His sketches were dreamy. But those were the only pieces of evidence found from the crime scenes. A killer on the loose who could not be identified to date, who also left the sketches of his victims next to their bodies. He was soon known as “The Doodler”. The Black Doodler, aka The doodler overall committed 16 murders and 3 assaults. All of his victims both dead and alive were men and most of them were gay. The murders started around 1974 in San Francisco, California. The murders went on to increase over the years without even leaving a major trail for investigation. With the modus operandi, the police were able to trace features of the doodler such as he was a male aged between 19-25, African, and with a slender build. However, they could not find him. Modus Operandi of His Crimes […]

Top 10 Gruesome Murders World Will Never Forget

Murders have always been the most heinous act of crimes for ages. Ceasing someone’s right of life by anyone has always been a matter of discussion. Taking someone’s life is considered inhuman and immoral in nature, because of this mindset even now in many countries including India, the death penalty is given in some cases. No doubt, murder is one of the most inhumane acts whenever done apart from self-defense. We have heard a lot of crime stories including both serious and not so serious kinds of criminal offenses. Murders are among the serious ones of the list. It has always been enticing to watch, hear or read stories of the scariest murderers and serial killers. This article will take you to a bone-chilling ride of reading about the most well-known murder cases that shook the world. Top 10 Scariest Murders You Should Know About 1. The Worst Women On […]

Top Eight Cold Cases in Europe That Remains Unsolved Till Date

World has witnessed infinite number of cold cases since ages. It has been observed that the developed and developing nations in every era have come across the most heinous types of crimes, that are gruesome in nature too.  Europe has always been the center of attraction in every aspect, whether positive developments or some of the most famous cold cases of the world. Many crime-related shows have always tried to capture these incidents and outside of infotainment documentaries like Unsolved Mysteries. Internet detectives have dedicated many hours, words, and posts to solving cold cases that have been long forgotten. So let’s go through some of the most chilling unsolved crime mysteries of Europe. Top Eight Unsolved Cold Cases in Europe 1. Murder of Auli Kyllikki Saari On 17th May 1953, a 17-year-old Auli Kyllikki Saari from Finland left for church on her bicycle. She also worked in the church office and […]

Difference Between Juvenile Delinquency & Juvenile Crime

We often come across the words like Juvenile justice, juvenile offenders, juvenile delinquency and juvenile crime, etc. while reading newspapers, articles, or hearing a news bulletin, but at the back of our minds we are not absolutely able to distinguish amongst such analogous words. This often leads to misunderstanding the lexicon of the matter related to it. Although, it is quite acceptable if a layman does not know the differences but if we belong to the fraternity of forensics, police, or law; these words are of great importance to us and conceptual clarity is a must to solve the cases related to Juveniles with utmost credibility. Juvenile’s Meaning In The Laws Juvenile meaning in the Indian constitution is a child below the age of 18. So under the Indian Laws, Section 2(k) of the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2000; “Juvenile” or “Child” is as a person […]

Minerals And Their Importance in Healthy Life

Just like every other essential nutrient taken in our body, minerals also play an important role in a healthy individual. They are essential for the growth of the human body even though they are required in few quantities. In the context of nutrition, a mineral can be defined as a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life. Keeping aside the external mineral input in our body, the four major structural elements present in the human body by weight are oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen. These are also considered to be major minerals. These four elements compose about 96% of the weight of the human body. Minerals being mostly elements, cannot be synthesized biochemically by living organisms. Plants acquire minerals from the soil. Most of the minerals humans consume are from plants, animals, and water. Water is an exponential source of minerals. The […]

Different Forms of DNA

The basic structural and functional unit of life i.e., cell consists of the nucleus. The nucleus holds the constituents of every living organism and the generations that would come later. Inside the nucleus is the chromosome which in turn consists of the genetic equation i.e., Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). All cellular organisms have double-stranded DNA genomes. DNA can be considered as a modified form of RNA since the normal ribose sugar in RNA is reduced into deoxyribose in DNA, whereas the simple base uracil is methylated into thymidine. In modern cells, the DNA precursors (the four deoxyribonucleotides, dNTPs) are produced by reduction of ribonucleotides di- or triphosphate by ribonucleotide reductase. The synthesis of DNA building blocks from RNA precursors is a major process. Based on the structure and certain characters, there are different forms of DNA namely A-DNA, B-DNA, and Z-DNA Formation of A, B & Z Forms of DNA Whether […]

The Night Stalker: The Tale of Richard Ramirez

Satanism is a cult practice that has been practiced around North America for quite a long time. The typical concept that there exists positive and negative energy to balance the universe is the same principle behind Satanism. If there exists an Angel, there exists Satan too. The belief and practice where one worships Satan and gives him an offering of Human corpses or animal corpses is Satanism. Richard Ramirez was one such person who believed in this cult practice and went on to commit a horrific crime spree which was so intense that even while assigning the sentence,  the judge stated his acts to be cruel, callousness, viciousness, and beyond any human understanding! Ramirez was a nightmare. He was given names such as Valley Intruder, Walk-in killer, and Night stalker. He was born to Mexican immigrants who settled in America. He became a serial killer, rapist, kidnapper, burglar, and child […]

The Disturbing Case Study of Jack Mogale: West End Serial Killer

Jack Mogale was born in Westonaria, South Africa in September 1968. He was also known as West End Serial Killer. He was accused of more than 50 crimes of which Nine kidnappings, nineteen rapes, and sixteen murders were reported. His crime span was around one year between 2008-2009. He was finally convicted on 17 February 2011. Early Life of Jack Mogale Mogale was born into a regular African family and was the eldest of all and had a younger sister. He got married and had two children however his wife passed away in 2001. His neighbors never found him to be criminal-minded, instead, he was extremely friendly to everybody around. The priests in the church found him to be a great believer in Jesus Christ and he used to attend services on all Sundays. Modus Operandi of His Crimes Jack Mogale’s method of committing the crime was almost the same in […]