Chromatography: The Most Ancient Separation Technique

Every component in this universe is made up of matter, the basic principle which we all learned in chemistry. We also learned that every compound is a mixture of multiple elements. Starting from water to colored solutions everything is a combination of one or more elements, which is why for ages humans have always been curious to separate these compounds to study what they are made up of. Scientists succeeded finally in separating components in the year 1855, when Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge, demonstrated a technique to separate dyes and components of chemicals using a filter paper immersed in another chemical. This was the starting of the most colorful and useful technique we today know as Chromatography.  But the evolution of chromatography did not stop with Mr. Runge. In 1900 in Russia, Michael (Mikhail) Tsvet, an Italian botanist tried to separate plant pigments adapting and modifying Runge’s technique. The result he […]

Can We Rely 100% on Forensic Scientists Expertise for Convicting Criminals?

Forensic science is an integral part of the criminal justice system and forensic scientists are the men at arms of this field. The role of a forensic scientist in the conviction of a criminal is of immense importance but, is can their judgments or results can be trusted 100% or not is a big question to be asked and discussed about?  The role of a forensic scientist starts from the very first instance of visiting a crime scene till the conviction of an offender. The searching of evidence, collection of the evidence, packing and preservation of the evidence, testing of various evidence according to their nature in various divisions of a forensic lab, preparation of the report, maintaining the integrity of the evidence and report, maintaining the chain of custody and finally giving your unbiased opinion as an expert in the court of law are the key duties of a […]

Polymerase Chain Reaction: The Boon in Genetics

Kary Mullis, a man of intelligence once used to be a baker with the dream of earning his own money but not only was he good at cooking, he was also an extreme science enthusiast. This is why even though he had less experience in molecular biology or genetics, he joined the molecular biology department of Cetus Corporation in California with the position of UCSF. Then an incident took place that created revolutionary inventions in the field of Genetics, Medicine, and Biology. In the year 1985, Kary Mullis invented the technique, Polymerase Chain Reaction, also known as PCR which helps in studying the core of every life on this earth called DeoxyriboNucleic Acid (DNA) in detail. After the invention of DNA and its structure, multiple scientists studied in detail the human genome, but the major problem faced by all of them was the availability of such DNA samples. It could […]