Simple Microscope vs Compound Microscope

Simple microscope and Compound microscope are two different microscopes having different properties in terms of use. So in this article, we will discuss the Simple microscope vs Compound microscope. Microscopes are instruments used to magnify the images of a small object. There are many different kinds of microscopes with different uses and properties used for different purposes. Microscopes are used in laboratories and academic experiments. To use microscopes we must know about them. A simple microscope is an instrument that uses a single optical lens for the magnification of an object while a compound microscope is an instrument that uses two lenses for the magnification of images which includes one objective lens and an eyepiece. A simple microscope includes a hand lens, reading glasses, etc. while a compound microscope is a laboratory instrument. Here, we will learn how a Simple microscope differs from a Compound microscope in its properties and […]

Compound Microscope: Principle, Instrumentation and Applications

Microscopes are useful in all fields of science for a deep study of any specimen and a Compound microscope is one of a kind. It has proven useful to pharmaceutical companies, fiber industries, Biological studies, and Forensic investigations as well. There are many different microscopes invented but the compound microscope is quite different and beneficial to scientists. It helps in obtaining high magnification of the samples up to 1000x as compared to a Simple microscope (100x magnification). The compound microscope is one of a kind invented by Dutch lens maker Hans and his son Zacharias Janssen. It is a high-magnifying microscope also known as a high-power microscope or biological microscope that helps in the examination of minute specimens at high magnification which are not visible to the naked eye such as bacteria or viruses. A compound microscope has many properties that has made it superior to other microscopes. Here, in […]

What is a Simple Microscope? Applications of Simple Microscope

A microscope is a laboratory instrument that is used to see an enlarged image of a small object which reveals the microscopic properties of that object which are not possible to see with the naked eye. The most common type of microscope is the Optical microscope also known as the Light microscope which uses the light focused through the lenses on the object to form an enlarged image. An optical microscope can be classified into two i.e., a Simple microscope and a Compound microscope. Other types of microscopes used are Polarized microscopes, Electron microscopes, Fluorescence microscopes, Stereo-microscope, etc. What is a Simple Microscope? A simple microscope is similar to a magnifying glass that uses a double convex lens to form an erect and enlarged image of an object when placed within its focal length. The image formed is virtual which means that the formed image cannot be projected on a […]

How are Diatoms Helpful in Forensic Science?

Diatoms belonging to the algae Bacillariophyceae are some 16,000 species found in kidneys or attached to solids in all the earth’s water. Diatoms are among the most important and largest marine organisms and act directly or indirectly as food for many animals. Diatomaceous earth, a substance composed of mineral diatoms, is used for filtering, blocking, abrasives, paints, and varnishes and as a basis for dynamite. Diatoms can be unicellular or colonial. Diatoms are usually subdivided into two orders on the basis of their proportions and shapes. Centrales around circles with differing markers; the Pennales are fused, moving in a sliding motion, with feather-like markings. [1]. Diatoms are important as: • They provide a food chain base for both marine and freshwater and animal larvae. • They are the main source of oxygen for 20-30% of the world’s carbon footprint • They can act as environmental advocates for climate change • […]

Landmark Case Judgment: Chiranjit Lal Chowdhuri vs Union of India

The application presented by Chiranjit Lal Chowdhuri under Article 32 of the Constitution of India in the landmark case of Chiranjit Lal Chowdhuri vs Union of India. He is a shareholder in Sholapur Spinning and Weaving Company Limited (Company) having a registered office in the State of Bombay and governed by the provisions of the Indian Companies Act. The petitioner Chiranjit Lal Chowdhuri is the holder of three ordinary shares and eight preference shares which are pledged in the name of the Bank of Baroda. In the present case, the petitioner asked for granting a writ of mandamus and other relief under Article 32 of the constitution. This appeal is filed by shareholders of the company challenging Sholapur Spinning and Weaving company LTD. On 9th January 1950 government passed the ordinance empowering the government of India to take over the control and management of the company and its properties. For […]

Brief Article on Crimes Against Men

In gender equality we only consider is equality for women. Violence against men or equality for men is not something that we regularly read. It is uncommon in the society.  Not so surprising but most of the time men refuse to come up about it. Laws are also not supportive of crimes against men. That leads to unreported and unsupported cases. Violence and crimes against men by men and woman is not a new phenomenon and it will increase with changing power dynamics, economic independence, and control over the economy and resources. Change in power dynamics will also affect relationships between men and women, where men are afraid of losing power and women are excited by their empowered position. For centuries women have suffered because of feebleness. Nowadays despite the balance in society by gradual change in power, it leads to crimes against men by women. The term crimes against […]

Data Breach Incident Management

Data or information of any type, stored by any means is important to a company and it has a colossal role in the reputation of a company. Data Breaches in the past are known to have caused financial losses to big corporations. Around 450 million Dollars are threatened every year just to cybersecurity breaches. Direct and Indirect losses Both chip in equally towards the damages bore by the company. Crisis Management A data breach is considered a crisis because of the large losses incurred by the organization and the repercussions of the same. Previous researches on the matter have emphasized on protecting the repute of the organization, which is important for their sustenance. Situational Crisis Communication Theory (SCCT) It is one of the common management technique used. This was introduced by Coombs in 2007. He tried to explain it based on the three primary Responses: Denial, Diminish, and Rebuild. Along […]

Decipherment/Examination of Charred Documents in Arson Investigation

Charred documents are the burnt documents that have turned black and fragile due to the application of excessive heat to the documents. The decipherment and handling of charred documents is one of the complex problems in questioned documents examination. Deciphering a burnt document has turned to be of great importance as they can reveal a lot of information in the ongoing investigation. This process is also one of the most difficult one due to the sample’s fragile nature. If handling and separation is not done properly, the sample can be of zero value. Methods to decipher Charred documents The deciphering methods of Charred documents have been classified into two categories i.e., Photographic and Visual methods. Photographic Methods These methods require pure photographic techniques to reveal the content of the burnt documents. The different photography methods used in deciphering are: I. Contact Process Davis of Bureau of Standards conducted various experiments […]

Landmark Case of F.N. Balsara vs State of Bombay

This is one of the major landmark cases in which an explanation regarding Article 14 was given. F.N. Balsara petitioner in the present case assailed the validity of the Bombay prohibition act 1949. The petition was filed by Balsara after the High court rejected his arguments to invalidate the act. The high court in its judgment dated 22 August 1950 invalidated some sections of the act. F.N. Balsara filed an appeal under Article 132 of the constitution for enforcement of fundamental rights. This act prohibited the citizens to manufacture liquor, possessing, import or export liquor. Sell or buy liquor. Advertising the use of liquor was also prohibited. This act prohibited the use of all substances which contain alcohol. Petition filed by F.N Balsara was heard by a five-judge bench consisting of Justice Faizal ali, Vivan bose, M Patanjali Sastri, Bijan Kumar Mukherjea, Sudhi Ranjan Das. The judgment of this court […]

Handling, Collection and Preservation of Charred Documents in Arson Cases

The document is a term used to define a material that has a symbol or writing over it which has some meaning and conveys a message. It can be over a piece of paper, wall, skin, cloth, metal sheet, tree, etc. A forensic science laboratory receives many questioned document cases of Theft, Burglary, Kidnapping, Arson, Homicide, Murder, Counterfeiting, Forgery, Fraud, etc. Charred documents are also among the reported documents in the FSL’s. What are Charred Documents? Charred documents are the type of documents which are found black and brittle in nature due to exposure to excess heat either accidental or intentional. These documents are very important in the investigations as they may contain important information due to which they were burnt. They are reported to Forensic science laboratory for the purpose of restoration and decipherment of writing. They are mostly found in the case of arson as the burning of […]

Difference Between Paper Chromatography & Thin Layer Chromatography

Chromatography is a separation technique wherein the different components of a mixture are separated. The mixture to be separated is run through the stationary phase with the help of a mobile phase which separates the different components of a mixture on the basis of partition or adsorption. The history of this technique dates back to 19th century only but it’s true use has attributed to a Russian Botanist named “Mikhail Tsvet” who used this technique to separate the plant pigments which are known by the name of Xanthophylls, Carotenes, Chlorophyll. The use of this technique was limited till the mid 20th century when the researchers Martin and Synge developed Partition chromatography to separate chemical substances with minimum separating coefficients. Paper Chromatography and Thin-layer Chromatography are the two among many chromatographic techniques that were developed with time and have been used continuously in different departments for separation of components. Definition of […]