Thin Layer Chromatography- Principle, Applications and Procedure

Thin Layer Chromatography(TLC) is a separation technique used to separate the components of non-volatile mixtures. TLC is significantly a better separation process than Paper chromatography. TLC was first reported to be used in 1938 in Izmailov and Schreiber. Principle of Thin Layer Chromatography Thin Layer Chromatography is a separation process based on the principle of adsorption in which the components of sample separate based on their affinity towards the stationary and mobile phase where the stationary phase is a thin layer of adsorbent material such as Aluminium oxide, Cellulose, or Silica gel while the mobile phase is the solvent. The separation occurs in a way that the components of higher affinity in a mixture move faster than those which have less affinity towards the stationary phase. When the solvent reaches the solvent front the components are placed at different Rf values and thus the separation is achieved. This procedure of […]

Top 10 Books Suggestion for Students of Forensic Sciences

There is a wide variety of Forensic Science books, it depends upon the degree you are pursuing be it bachelors or masters or research. For the core subject, we personally suggest Indian authors like B.R. Sharma, Dr. (Mrs.) Rukmani Krishnamurthy, Dr. Anil Aggarwal, Gurdeep Chatwal, Modi, and Foreign authors like Saferstein, and Osborn. However, for decreasing your confusion and making it easy for you, we have listed some of the best books for the students. Top 10 Forensic Science Books for Reference 1. Introduction to Forensic Science in Crime Investigation This book was written by Rukmani Krishnamurthy and published in 2015. This book deals with detailed topics of forensic. The topics of discussion are Crime, Crime Scenes, Crime Scenes in Natural Disasters, people involved in Investigation, Crime Scene Management, First Responding Officers, Protection of the Crime Scene, Reconstruction of the Crime scene, Scientific Survey, and Documentation of Crime Scene, Physical […]

Paper Chromatography- Types, Forensic Significance, Advantages, and Disadvantages

Paper Chromatography is a separation technique in which a substance mixture is separated based on the partition or adsorption principle where cellulose paper is a stationary phase while the solvent is the mobile phase. Paper chromatography is used particularly for separation of lipid samples and chemical substances. Types of Paper Chromatography Paper Chromatography has been classified into 5 types. These are:- Ascending Chromatography Descending Chromatography Ascending-Descending Chromatography Radial Chromatography 2-D Chromatography Ascending Chromatography In this type of Chromatography, the development of chromatogram is done by allowing the mobile phase to run in the upwards direction on the stationary phase. In this method, the solvent is at the bottom of the chamber while the stationary phase is dipped in the chamber with the sample spot just above the solvent. This technique is used for the separation of organic and inorganic substances. Descending Chromatography In this type of Chromatography, the solvent runs […]

Paper Chromatography | Principle and Procedure

Paper chromatography is a planar type of chromatography used for the separation of mixture of substances. It is a simple, inexpensive and a powerful technique that can separate the components by using small quantities of samples. It is a two-dimensional technique which was discovered by Synge and Martin in the year 1943. Principle of Paper Chromatography (PC) Paper chromatography(PC) is based on the principle of both adsorption as well as partition chromatography with a stationary phase (either liquid or solid) and a mobile phase (either gas or liquid). Paper Chromatography is generally based on the principle of partition rather than adsorption wherein the sample solution travels up through the stationary phase separating the components of the mixture based on their migration rate. Paper adsorption Chromatography:- In this principle, the stationary phase is the silica or alumina while solvent is used as the mobile phase. Paper partition Chromatography:- In this principle, […]

Abortion Time Period Extended to 24 Weeks From 20

Rajya Sabha on Tuesday amended the Medical termination bill i.e., Abortion Bill to extend the time period for the termination of foetus upto 24 weeks which was earlier set at 20 weeks. This bill is the amendment of the Medical Termination bill, 1971 and was passed in Lok Sabha in March 2020. This bill provides the right to women of special categories such as Rape survivors, victims of incest, differently abled, and minors to abort their child. Although the bill has come as a relief to many women, opposition criticizes the bill saying that the bill still has not given any right of choice to the women as they need the nod of a doctor to sanction an abortion. The opposition demanded that the Bill should be sent to the Parliamentary Select Committee for detailed scrutiny was defeated by a voice vote. Currently, a woman requires the consent of one […]

Marital Rape: Crime That Needs its Introduction in IPC

Marital Rape is an act of Domestic violence and sexual abuse when a spouse gets involved in sexual intercourse with his wife without her consent. Ancient laws didn’t consider it as an act of crime yet in this era many international countries have provided the woman with a right of consent. A woman’s consent is the most important feature in marital rape even though physical violence is not present there. Historical laws represented that if a husband sexually assaults her wife it is within his rights as the wife has given her up to her spouse with marriage. The modern societies though opposed the sexual violence among husband and wife and raised their voices. Since, 20th century many countries started reforming their laws related to marital rape. Marital Rape in India Domestic Violence has always been an issue in the society in India. Laws relating to domestic violence has been […]

Euthanasia and its Types | Should Euthanasia be Legalized?

Euthanasia is a term derived from the Greek word “eu” meaning “good” and “thanatos” meaning “death“. It is a process to end someone’s life voluntarily to end the suffering of that particular person. It is also termed as ‘Mercy Killing‘. The person either going through unbearable pain, incapacitating physical disorder, or incurable disease that requires mercy killing. Euthanasia is usually performed by the doctors at the request of the patient by withholding treatment or withdrawing artificial life support or injecting the patient with a drug for a painless death. It is a very complex process that requires the authenticity of doctors, patients, and family members also keeping in mind the local laws. The doctor In this article, we will discuss the types of Euthanasia and laws related to this term in India as well as other countries. Types of Euthanasia The term “Euthanasia” is classified into five different categories:- Voluntary […]